Lǽden
Morphological Analysis
Wordclass: Noun
Gender: Neuter
Related §§ in Wright's OE Grammar:
In the OE text, the length is:indicated by acute accentsindicated by macronsnot indicated.
Lǽden
es; n. I. Latin, the Latin tongue Is ðæt Léden on smeáunge gewrita eallum ðám óðrum gemǽne quæ [i.e. lingua Latinorum] meditatione scripturarum cæteris omnibus est facta communis, Bd. 1, 1; S, 474, 4. Swá gelǽred ðæt hé Grécisc gereord of miclum dǽle cúþe and Léden him wæs swá cúþ swá swá Englisc in tantum institutus, ut Græcam linguam non parva ex parte, Latinam non minus quam Anglorum noverit, 5, 20; S. 641, 34. Wé ne durron ná máre áwrítan on Englisc ðonne ðæt Léden hæfþ, ne ða endebirdnisse áwendan búton ðam ánum ðæt ðæt Léden and ðæt Englisc nabbaþ ná áne wísan on ðære sprǽce fadunge [fandunge, Thw.]. Ǽfre se ðe áwent of Lédene on Englisc, ǽfre hé sceal gefadian hit swá ðæt ðæt Englisc hæbbe his ágene wísan, elles hit biþ swíðe gedwolsum tó rǽdenne ðam ðe ðǽs Lédenes wísan ne can, Ælfc. Gen. Thw, 4, 5-11. Hé Grécisc geleornode mid Lédene Græcam cum Latina didicit linguam, Bd. 5, 23; S. 645, 16. Of Lǽdene on Englisc áreccean to translate from Latin into English, Past. pref; Swt. 3, 15. Of Lǽdene tó Engliscum spelle gewendan, Bt. pref; Fox viii, 9. Glossa is ðonne man glésþ ða earfoþan word mid eáðran lédene faustus is on ódrum lédene beatus ðæt is eádig fatuus is on óðrum lédene stultus ðæt is stunt a gloss is when the difficult words are explained with easier Latin; another Latin word for faustus is beatus i.e. happy; another Latin word for fatuus is stultus i.e. foolish, Ælfc. Gr. 50; Som. 51, 43-4. Ða bóc ðe is genemned on Lǽden Pastoralis, and on Englisc Hierdebóc, Past. pref.; Swt. 7, 19. Hér is geleáfa lǽwedum mannum ðe ðæt léden ne cunnon, Homl. Th. ii. 596, 2. Gitrahtad on lǽden [Lind. in Latin] interprætatum, Mk. Skt. Rush. 5, 41. On lǽden [Lind. lǽddin] latine, Jn, Skt. Rush. 19, 20. Didymus, gemi-nus in lætin, Lind. 20, 24, margin. Hí beóþ oft óðres cynnes on léden, and óðres cynnes on englisc; wé cweþaþ on léden hic liber, and on englisc ðeós bóc, Ælfc. Gr. 6; Som. 5, 37-40. On léden latine and latialiter, 38; Som. 41, 32. Gelǽrede on léden and on grécisc, Homl. Skt. 2, 44: Bd. 4, 1; S. 564, 11. Sum mæssepreóst cúðe be dǽle Lýden understandan a certain mass-priest could understand Latin partially, Ælfc. Gen. Thw. p. 1, 20. [Cf. Icel. Látína; f.] II. any tongue, speech, language Spasmus ðæt ys on úre leódene hneccan sár σπασμόs, that is in our language, a pain at the back of the neck, Lchdm. iii. 110, 1. Mara ðæt ys on úre lýden biternys, Ex. 15, 23. Ealle hig sprecaþ án lýden est unum labium omnibus, Gen. 11, 6. [Laym. cerno an Englisc leoden, ich iseo, 29677: Marh. þe moneþ ðat on ure ledene is ald englisch esterlið inempnet, 23, 6: A. R. on ebreuwische ledene, 136, 24; on englische leodene, 170, 9: Piers P. I leve his ledne be in owre lordes ere lyke a pyes chiteryng, 12, 253: Chauc. every thing that any foul may in his ledene seyn, F. 435 [see Skeat's note in the Clarendon Press edition]. For the extended use of forms in Romance from latinus cf. the passage, given in that note, of Dante's Canzone beginning 'Fresca rosa novella,' 'Cantino gli augelli ciascuno in suo latino;' Parad. iii. 63 si che 'l raffigurar m'é piu latino [clear]; Convito bk. 2, c. 3 a piu latinamente veder la sentenza. In Old Spanish ladino is explained 'el que sabe otra lengua o lenguas ademas de la suya.' Is it possible that in the case of English the forms geþeóde, þeód may have had some influence in giving currency to lýden in the general sense of language, by suggesting a connection of this latter form with leód?]
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