ofer
Morphological Analysis
Wordclass: Preposition
Related §§ in Wright's OE Grammar:
In the OE text, the length is:indicated by acute accentsindicated by macronsnot indicated.
ofer
ofor; prep. adv. I. with dat. generally with the idea of rest; 1. above, over Wæs hálig leáht ofer wéstenne, Cd. Th. 8, 16; Gen. 125. Beheóld ofer leódwerum byrnende beám, 184, 20; Exod. 110. Mæst hlifade ofer Hróþgáres hordgestreónum, Beo. Th. 3802; B. 1899. Wígláf siteþ ofer Biówulfe, 5806; B. 2907. 2. denoting contact with anything, upon, on Hé gesette ofer stáne fét míne, Ps. Lamb. 39, 3. Hwonne hié ofer streánstaðe stæppan mósten (might set foot on shore ), Cd. Th. 86, 21; Gen. 2434. Wind ofer ýðum the wind on the waves, Beo. Th. 3819; B. 1907. Ánra gehwylc hæfde sweord ofer his hype, Blickl. Homl. 11, 18. Sittende ofor eoselan folan, 71, 5. Úre Dryhten sæt ofer winda fiðerum, Salm. Kmbl. p. 198, 26. 3. denoting extension over, throughout, in, on Hé wolde ǽgðær ge ofer heofenum ge ofer eorþan ús his miltse gecýðon, Blickl. Homl. 39, 22: Gen. 4, 11. 4. denoting a higher degree, beyond, more than Ofer snáwe scínende, Ps. C. 50, 75; Ps. Grn. ii. 278, 75. 5. denoting the cause of an emotion, over (as in to rejoice over, etc.) Byþ on heofone blis be ánum synfullun ðe dǽdbóte déþ, má ðonne ofer nigon and nigontigum rihtwísra, Lk. 15, 7. Ic blissige ofer ðínre sprǽce, Ps. Th. 118, 162. 6. denoting the object over which power is exercised Ðæt mód ðe ofer ðæm flǽsce sitt and his wealdan sceolde mens carni praesidens, Past. 36, 7; Swt. 257, 3. Ofer deóflum wealdeþ, Cd. Th. 263, 20; Dan. 765. 7. with the idea of movement, where the accusative might be expected Hleó wand ofer wolcnum, Cd. Th. 182, 23; Exod. 80. Up gewát líg ofer leáfum, 231, 18; Dan. 249. Ofer ðære Reádan Sǽ eode Israela folc, Salm. Kmbl. p. 198, 20. 8. marking time, after, beyond Ðá undergeat heó ðæt se bróðer ne móste his lífes brúcan ofer ðam ánum geáre, Homl. Th. ii. 146, 17. Se dæg biþ ofer eástrum, H. R. 99, 15. II. with acc. generally with the idea of movement. 1. denoting motion in a definite direction across, to the other side of an object Ofer sǽ citra pontum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 18, 68. Ofer landgemǽru extra terminum ... ofer ðone ford trans vadum, ofer sǽ trans mare, Ælfc. Gr. 47; Som. 47. 29, 38. Ðá cómon hí ofer ðære sǽs múþan, Mk. Skt. 5, 1. Hié ofer sǽ gewiton, Chr. 885; Erl. 82, 25. Hié eodon ofer land they went across the country, 896; Erl. 94, 14: Andr.Kmbl. 2460; An. 1231. Ofer eástreámas ís brycgade the ice threw a bridge across the rivers, 2523; An. 1263. Hí wurpon heora waru ofor bord they cast their wares overboard, Homl. Th. i. 246, 2, 9. Ofer clif per praeceps (v. Mt. 8, 32, where the swine go over the cliffs edge), Wrt. Voc. ii. 72, 35. Ic út gange ofer mínre burge weall transgrediar murum, Ps. Th. 17, 28: Cd. Th. 90, 12; Gen. 1494. Ic cume ofer langne weg, 35, 13; Gen. 554. Se eádega bewlát ofer exle, 177, 7; Gen. 2926. 2. denoting motion which is diffused over a surface Streám út áweóll, fleów ofer foldan, Andr. Kmbl. 3046; An. 1526. Wíde ofer woruld ealle geseón, Cd. Th. 36, 2; Gen. 565: 42, 17; Gen. 675. Hé ofer ealle þeóde eágum wlíteþ, Ps. Th. 65, 6. Álǽd upp ða froxas ofer eall Egipta land, Ex. 8, 5. Wǽron gewurden þýstru ofer ealle eorþan, Mt. 27, 45: Blickl. Homl. 93, 18. Bufan ðæm máran wealle ofer ealne ðone ymbgong hé is mid stǽnenum wíghúsum beworht, Ors. 2, 4; Swt. 74, 20. Mann ús ofer eall (cf. Ger. überall) sóhte, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 450. Ða weorcstánas lágon ofer eall lay scattered in all directions, 23, 490. 3. denoting extension through a space, throughout, among Se wæs mǽrost ofer werþeóde, Beo. Th. 1802; B. 899. Heó wæs seó eádgeste ofer eall wífa cynn she was most blessed among all the race of women, Blickl. Homl. 13, 15. Se sceal beón gehered ofor ealle þeóda, 71, 16. Hét hé beódan ofer ealle ða fird ðæt hié fóron ealle út ætsomne, Chr. 905; Erl. 98, 22. Wilnung leáses gilpes ofer eall folc, Bt. 18, 1; Fox 60, 24. 4. denoting motion from below, over, above Hefe upp ðíne hand ofer call ðæt flód, and ofer burna and ofer móras, Ex. 8, 5. Mín unriht mé hlýpþ ofer heáfod, Ps. Th. 37, 4. Hié him ásetton segen gyldenne ofer heáfod, Beo. Th. 95; B. 48. Man slóh án geteld ofer ða hálgan bán, Swt. A. S. Rdr. 100, 150. Iudas up áhóf ðara róda twá ofer ðæt fǽge hús, Elen. Kmbl. 1759; El. 881. Se ðe ástáh ofer heofenas qui ascendit super caelos, ofer heálíce dúne ástíh ðú super montem excelsum ascende tu, Ælfc. Gr. 47; Som. 48, 23. 5. denoting motion from above, upon, on Se hys hús ofer stán getimbrode, Mt. Kmbl. 7, 24. Hé hine ásette ofer ðæs temples scylf, Blickl. Homl. 27, 11. Feallaþ ofor ús, 93, 33: Elen. Kmbl. 2267; El. 1135. 6. denoting the object upon which an action or feeling takes effect Andreas sette his hand ofer ðara wera eágan ... And eft hé sette his hand ofer hiora heortan, St. And. 12, 34-35. Sleáþ synnigne ofer seolfes múþ (smite him over the mouth ), Andr. Kmbl. 2602; An. 1302. Sý hys blód ofer ús and ofer úre bearn his blood be upon us, and upon our children, Mt. Kmbl. 27, 25. Mín hand byþ ofer ðíne æceras and ofslihþ ðíne hors mid hefegum cwealme, Ex. 9, 3. Ða tácna ðe hé worhte ofer ða untruman men the miracles he wrought upon the sick, Homl. Th. i. 182, 1. Eftwyrd cymþ ofer middangeard, Cd. Th. 212, 17; Exod. 540. Se tán gehwearf ofer (the lot fell upon ) ǽnne ealdgesíþa, Andr. Kmbl. 2209; An. 1106. Gé onfóþ ðæm mægene Hálges Gástes, se cymeþ ofor eów, Blickl. Homl. 119, 12. Ðín mildheortnes is mycel ofor mé, 89, 27. 7. denoting the object over which power is exercised His mægen wealdeþ ofer eall manna cyn, Ps. Th. 65, 6. Forðam ðe ðú wǽre getrýwe ofer lytle þing, is gesette ðé ofer mycle, Mt. Kmbl. 25, 21. Ðú byst andweald hæbbende ofer týn ceastra ... Beó ðú ofer fíf ceastra, Lk. Skt. 19, 17-19. Se hæfde mægen ofer ealle gesceafta, Blickl. Homl. 9, 15. Ríce ofer heofenstólas, Cd. Th. 1, 15; Gen. 8. Cræft móda gehwylces ofer líchoman, Met. 26, 106. Deáþ rícsade ofer foldbúend, Exon. Th. 154, 17; Gú. 843. 8. denoting degree () above, more than; supra, super Ioseph wæs gleáwra ofer hí ealle, Ors. 1, 5; Swt. 34, 1. Hé lufode Iosep ofer his suna he loved Joseph more than all his children, Gen. 37, 3: 44, 20. Ne lufige ic nánwiht ðisses andweardan lýfes ofer ðæt (éce líf), ne furðum ðam gelíce, Shrn. 177, 14. Ða stówe ofer ealle óðre is geceás, Blickl. Homl. 201, 7. Nys se leorningcniht ofer his láreów, ne þeów ofer hys hláford, Mt. Kmbl. 10, 24: Exon. Th. 105, 35; Gú. 33. Hit is áwriten, ðæt seó góde antswaru sý ouer ða sélestan selene, R. Ben. 55, 8. Ðæs biscepes weorc sceolon bión ofer óðra monna weorc debet actionem populi actio transcendere praesulis, Past. 12; Swt. 75, 3. Is án steorra ofer óðre beorht, Met. 29, 19. Moises wæs se bilewitusta mann ofer ealle men, Num. 12, 3. Fram twentig wintrum and ofer ðæt a vigesimo anno et supra, 1, 3. β. beyond, besides; ultra Ofer ðæt (ultro ) gé ne lǽtaþ hine ǽnig þing dón, Mk. Skt. 7, 12. Ne ofer ðæt (ultra ) sweltan ne mágon, Lk. Skt. 20, 36. Ne lǽteþ hé ús nó costian ofer gemet, Blickl. Homl. 13, 9. Ðú sprycst ofer mǽþe úre ultra etatem nostram, Coll. Monast. Th. 32, 11. Ðæt héhste gód [is] ðætte man ne þurfe nánes óðres gódes ne eác ne récce ofer ðæt siððan hé ðæt hæbbe id est bonum, quo quis adepto, nihil ulterius desiderare queat, Bt. 24, 1; Fox 80, 13. Siððan ðú hí gecnáwan miht ðonne wát ic ðæt ðú ne wilnast nánes óðres þinges ofer ða (you will desire nothing further ), 23; Fox 80, 3. Hié lícettaþ ðæt him ne síe náwuhtes cearu ofer ða ryhtwísnesse, Past. 41; Swt. 302, 10. Se ðe godgeldum onsæcge ofer (besides ) God ánne, L. Alf. 32; Th. i. 52, 12. 9. denoting the passing over moral bounds, in violation of, in opposition to, contrary to, against Ofer Godes ǽ hé déþ extra legem Domini facie, Ælfc. Gr. 47; Som.47, 29. Se wæs ofslagen ofer áþas and treówa contra fidem jusjurandi peremptus est, Bd. 2, 20; S. 521, 17: Chr. 894; Erl. 90, 5. Ætsǽton ða Centiscan beæftan ofer his bebod, 905; Erl. 98, 24: Blickl. Homl. 91, 16: Exon. Th. 244, 5; Jul. 23. Wite hé ðæt hé hit dé ofer Godes ést and ofer ealra his háligra, and eác ofer monna godcundra háda and woruldcundra, Chart. Th. 131, 36: Exon. Th. 226, 10; Ph. 403: Cd. Th. 76, 2; Gen. 1251. Hié ǽr ofer hiera willan him tó gecierdon, Ors. 2, 5; Swt. 82, 10. Gecuron Brettanie Maximianus him tó cásere ofer his willan, 6, 35; Swt. 292, 15. (10) with words implying rest :-- Standende ofer hig, Lk. Skt. 4, 39. Ne biþ forlǽten stán ofer stán, Blickl. Homl. 79, 1. Hé fyrgenbeámas ofer hárne stán hleonian funde, Beo. Th. 2834; B. 1415. Æþelingas ofer heánne hróf hand sceáwedon, 1970; B. 983, (11) denoting the subject of discourse (cf. to talk over ) :-- Hé ofer benne spræc, wunde wælbleáte, 5442; B. 2724. Ofer Ysmahel ic gehírde ðé, Gen. 17, 20. (12) denoting the cause of an emotion (cf. I. 5) :-- Heó hæfþ genóh on ðís andweardan lífe, ac heó hit hæfþ eall forsewen ofer ðé ánne (simply on your account[?]), Bt. 10; Fox 28, 26. (13) without :-- Gif hé gesécean dear wíg ofer wǽpen, Beo. Th. 1374; B. 685. (14) with words expressing time, () after :-- Ofer middæg post meridiem, Gen. 3, 8. Ofor undern, Blickl. Homl. 93, 15. Ofer ealle tíd tó sáwenne ultra omne tempus serendi, Bd. 4, 28; S. 605. 39, 8. Ofer hyre deg ... ofer mínnæ dæg (cf. æfter hæora dæge, 12), Chart. Th. 520, 7-34. Ne onbirigdon ðæs bigleofan ofer ðæt (ultra ), Jos. 5, 12. Hé ne oncnáweþ ofer ðæt stówe non cognoscet amplius locum, Ps. Lamb. 102, 16. Hé ofer ðæt (ultra ) deófulgyldum ne þeówde, Bd. 2, 9; S. 512, 7: Ors. 5, 7; Swt. 230, 7: R. Ben. 53, 16. Longe ofer ðis, Exon. T. 172, 15; Gú. 1144. Ofer ða niht, Beo. Th. 1476; B. 736. β. expressing duration, through, during Ofer ealle ða niht ðe wé férdon during the whole night that we marched, Nar. 12, 2. Hé hié slóg ofer ealne ðone dæg, Ors. 4, 10; Swt. 200, 21. Ða steorran ðe ofer ealne winter scínaþ ... Ofer ealne sumor hí gáþ on nihtlícre tíde under ðissere eorþan, Lchdm. iii. 270, 24-26. Hí wunodon mid ðæm biscope ofer geár, and siðan gewendon tó Antiochia, Homl. Skt. i. 3, 81. Ða sylfan sealmas sýn dæghwamlíce geedlǽhte ofer ealle wucan, R. Ben. 43, I. III. adverbially, or not followed by a case Ðæt ðú ne mihtst nǽnne weg findan ofer, Bt. 34, 4; Fox 138, 28. Hé eode tó ðære burge wealle, and fleáh út ofer, Ors. 5, 12; Swt. 244. 3. Ðonne cépþ hé hwǽr se weall unhéhst sý, and ðær ofer scýt (oferscýt?) he observes where the wall is lowest, and over there he rushes, Homl. Th. i. 484, 11. Án fiscere uneáþe hiene ǽnne ofer brohte, 2, 5; Swt. 84, 10. Mid Angelþeóde ðe hé ofer cyning wæs, Bd. 3, 6; S. 528, 3. Sió giémen ðære ciricean síe ðæm beboden ðe hié wel ofer mǽge, Past. 5; Swt. 45, 1. Wese ús beorhtnes ofer Drihtnes úres, Ps. Th. 89, 19. Se cwellere him ofer stód illi instante carnifice, Bd. 4, 16; S. 584, 36: Homl. Th. ii. 494, 27. Eall ðæt ofer biþ tó láfe is tó syllanne, swá swá Crist lǽrde: 'Quod superest date eleemosynam:' ðæt ofer sí and tó láfe sellaþ ælmessan, Bd. 1, 27; S. 489, 26-30. Wé nú gehýrdon ðis hálige godspel beforan ús rǽdan, and ðéh wé hit sceolan eft ofer cweþan (we must say it over again ), ðæt wé ðé geornor witon ðæt hit ús tó bysene belimpeþ éces lífes, Blickl. Homl. 15, 31. Ealle ðe ðǽr ofer beóþ getealde wintra, ða beóþ gewinn and sár, 89, 11. Hú þicke se hefon wǽre oððe hwæt ðǽr ofer wǽre, Bt. 35, 4; Fox 162, 23. Ofer ufa desuper, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 21, 7. Ofer uppan up above, Met. 24, 27. [Goth. ufar: O. Sax. oƀar: O. Frs. over: Icel. ofr-; and cf. yfir: O. H. Ger. ubar.]
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