wesan
Morphological Analysis
Wordclass: Verb
Verb Class: Strong, Anomalous
Related §§ in Wright's OE Grammar:
In the OE text, the length is:indicated by acute accentsindicated by macronsnot indicated.
wesan
p. wæs, pl. wǽron To be Wesan and beón fore, Wrt. Voc. ii. 34, 61. I. as an independent verb, 1. denoting existence to be, exist Wesendum, beóndum existentibus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 32, 63. a. of animate objects, to exist, live Wesaþ and weaxaþ ealle werþeóde, lifgaþ bi ðám lissum ðe ús Dryhten sette, Exon. Th. 192, 30; Az. 113. On frymðe wæs word, Jn. Skt. 1, 1. God ðe ǽr worulde wæs, Ps. Th. 54, 19. Ða hwíle ðe hé wæs while he lived, Chart. Th. 167, 9. Manige hálge wítgan wǽran ǽr Sancte Ióhanne, Blickl. Homl. 161, 12. Ðæt hé his móste brúcan, ða hwíle ðe hé wǽre, Chart. Th. 140, 30. Swaðer uncer leng wǽre (cf. swaðer uncer leng lifede, 38), 485, 29. Swilce hé áwár wǽre, ǽr ðan ðe hé geboren wǽre, ac . . . him betere wǽre, ðæt hé nǽfre nǽre, ðonne hé yfele wǽre, Homl. Th. ii. 244, 19. Ne mæg ic hér leng wesan, Beo. Th. 5595; B. 2801. Hé bið á wesende, Blickl. Homl. 19, 26. b. of inanimate objects Him is eall andweard, ge ðætte ǽr wæs, ge ðætte nú is, ge ðætte æfter ús bið, Bt. 42; Fox 256, 28. Ǽr woruld wǽre, Ps. Th. 73, 12. Seó þrág gewát, swá heó nó wǽre, Exon. Th. 292, 9; Wand. 96. Hé him tó frófre lét forð wesan hyrstedne hróf, Cd. Th. 58, 33; Gen. 955. 2. where an object exists, and so may be found; where in modern English there precedes the verb Wæs ðara manna . . . endleofan síþum hund teóntig þúsenda, Blickl. Homl. 79, 17. Wǽron monge, ða ðe Meotude gehýrdun, Exon. Th. 228, 24; Ph. 443. Ðá wǽron monige ðe his mǽg wriðon, Beo. Th. 5956; B. 2982. Him þúhte ðæt ðanon wǽre tó helle duru hund þúsenda míla, Cd. Th. 310, 7; Sat. 722. 3. denoting presence, stay of longer or shorter duration, to be, stand, have place, dwell On ðære gesihðe wesaþ ealle geleáffulle, Blickl. Homl. 13, 28. Ic wæs (I have been ) sixtýne síðum on sǽbáte, Andr. Kmbl. 977; An. 489. Ic ongiten hæbbe ðæt ðú on faroðstrǽte feor ne wǽre, 1796; An. 900. Wǽre ðú mid ðínum fæder? Blickl. Homl. 151, 26. Wóp wæs wíde, Cd. Th. 180, 8; Exod. 42. Ðæt hé léte hyne licgean, ðǽr hé longe wæs, Beo. Th. 6157; B. 3082. Ðæt word wæs mid Gode, Jn. Skt. 1, 1. Heó wæs mid twám werum she lived with two husbands, Homl. Skt. i. 20, 3. Ðonne wæs hé mid his ágnum cynne, Bt. 5, 1; Fox 10, 10. Wé mid englum uppe wǽron, Cd. Th. 289, 2; Sat. 391. Ða ðe ðǽr ǽr inne wǽron, Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 35. Ða ðe him on neáweste wǽron, Ors. 1, 10; Swt. 46, 2. Ðǽr manna wese mǽst ætgædere, Ps. Th. 78, 10. Wese ús beorhtnes ofer, 89, 19. Wesan hí wið Drihtne, 108, 19. Wǽre ðǽr hé wǽre, Bt. 5, 1; Fox 10, 9, 10: Elen. Kmbl. 317; El. 159. Gelimplíc wæs ðæt ða ætgædere wǽron on écre stówe, Blickl. Homl. 133, 24. Ðæt hié ongieton mín mægen on ðé wesan, 241, 15. Ðara cynna monige hé wiste on Germanie wesan, Bd. 5, 9; S. 622, 14. Ne mæg hé be ðý wedre wesan he cannot stop in the open air, Exon. Th. 340, 18; Gn. Ex. 113. Gód is ús hér tó wossanne, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 17, 4: Mk. Skt. Lind. 9, 5. Wosanne (wosane, Rush.), Lk. Skt. Lind. 9, 33: Mk. Skt. Rush. 9, 5. 4. where motion takes place Ðá wǽron wit twégen on ánum olfende þurh ðæt rúme wésten, and wit unc simble ondrédon hwonne wit sceoldon feallan of ðam olfende, Shrn. 38, 14. Hí wǽron heom tó Lundene weard, Chr. 1052; Erl. 185, 4. 5. denoting condition, a. nature of persons, to be, live Ne wosas gé swǽ légeras, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 6, 5. Him betere wǽre ðæt hé nǽfre nǽre, ðonne hé yfele wǽre, Homl. Th. ii. 244, 21. Ðonne gé fæston, nellon gé wesan (wosa, Lind.) swylce leáse líceteras, Mt. Kmbl. 6, 16. (v. III c.) b. condition or state of things Se hálga heáp wæs sprecende mid eallum gereordum; and eác, ðæt wunderlícor wæs, ðá ðá heora án bodade mid ánre sprǽce, ǽlcum wæs geþúht, ðe ða bodunge gehýrde, swilce hé sprǽce mid his gereorde, Homl. Th. i. 318, 26. Wese swá, Ps. Th. 71, 20: 88, 45. Lǽtaþ ðis ðus wesan, Blickl. Homl. 69, 17: 75, 31. 6. to be, to be done, come to pass, happen On ðǽm dagum wæs ðæt Liber Pater oferwan Indéa ðeóde, Ors. 1, 6; Swt. 36, 17. On ðære tíde wæs sió ofermycelo hǽto, 1, 7; Swt. 40, 3. On ðæm geáre ðe ðiss wæs, 2, 1; Swt. 60, 17: Chr. 1048; Erl. 180, 19. Git ðæt wæs, ðæt hé tó cyninges simbla gelaþod wǽre, Bd. 3, 5; S. 527, 2: Blickl. Homl. 11, 23: Wulfst. 9, 11: 12, 14. Hwæt wille gé nú hwæt ic hire doo? . . . Wese hit nú be eówrum dómum, Blickl. Homl. 157, 7. Ðý læs ðæt wǽre, ðæt hé ǽnig ðara góda forylde, 213, 23. Tó wosanne onginnaþ fieri incipient, Lk. Skt. Lind. 21, 7. 7. to be, have result, turn WÉSAN — WESTAN." num="b1210" title="Page b1210 - 1210 WÉSAN — WESTAN.">out (v. wá, I.) Se hálga gebæd for ðæt seóce cyld, and him wæs sóna bet (it was better with him at once, i. e. he was better ), Homl. Skt. i. 3, 311. Námon tó rǽde, ðæt him wærlícor wǽre, ðæt hí sumne dǽl heora landes wurðes æthæfdon they resolved that keeping back part of the price of the land would turn out more safely for them, Homl. Th. i. 316, 24. Hé ðóhte hine him tó yrfewearde gedón. Ac ðæt hwæþere swá wesan ne mihte, Bd. 5, 19 ; S. 638, 23. 8. with dat. of person, a. to belong to, for a person to have something Him wæs beorht wela, Cd. Th. 96, 32 ; Gen. 1603 : 216, 20; Dan. 9. Ðam wæs Crist nama, Andr. Kmbl. 2646; An. 1324. Ne him wese ǽnig fultum, Ps. Th. 108, 12. Wesan him dagas deorce and feáwe, 108, 8. Ðæt ðám gengum gád ne wǽre wiste ne wǽde, Cd. Th. 222, 10; Dan. 102. b. to affect, be the matter with Ðá frægn hé hine hwæt him wǽre, Bd. 4, 25 ; S. 600, 32. II. with a predicative noun or pronoun, to be God wæs ðæt word, Jn. Skt. 1 , 1. Ðæt wæs gód cyning, Beo. Th. 22; B. 11. Wæs hira Matheus sum, Andr. Kmbl. 22 ; An. 11. Ðæt mon mæg gesión ðæt hí gió men wǽron, Bt. 37, 3 ; Fox 192, 3. Wes ús freónd, Cd. Th. 165, 1; Gen. 2725. Ic mæg wesan god, 18, 35; Gen. 283. Se ðe wæs leorningcniht on háde ongann wesan láreów on martyrdóme, Homl. Th. i. 50, 6. Hwæt wile ðis wesan ? Blickl. Homl. 239, 29. Sǽde hé ðæt hé hine cniht wesende gesáwe quod fanum se in pueritia vidisse testabatur , Bd. 2, 15 ; S. 518, 36 : Exon. Th. 320, 34; Víd. 39. On ðæm cniht wesendum ðá ðis hǽlo wundur geworden wæs in quo tunc puero factum erat hoc miraculum sanitatis , Bd. 3, 12; S. 537, 17. Umbor wesendum, Beo. Th. 2378 ; B. 1187. Ic hine cúðe cniht wesende, 750; B. 372. III. with a predicative adjective or participle Hé edgeong weseþ, Exon. Th. 224, 10 ; Ph. 373. Ðú ðé wǽre reód, and ic mé wæs blác; ðú wǽre glæd, and ic mé wæs unrót, L. E. I. proem. ; Th. ii. 398, 14. Se beág wæs of þornum geworht, Exon. Th. 88, 27; Cri. 1446. Þeód wæs oflysted, Andr. Kmbl. 2226; An. 1115. Cyning wæs áfyrhted, Elen. Kmbl. 112 ; El. 56. Ðá wæs gesýne ðæt sige forgeaf cyning ælmihtig, 287 ; El. 144. Wes ðú behýdig and gemyndig, Blickl. Homl. 67, 32. Hál wæs ðú aue , Mt. Kmbl. 27, 30. Hál westú, Blickl. Homl. 143, 17. Westú gearo, Bd. 5, 19; S. 640, 44. Hále wese gé (wosaþ gié, Lind.) auete , Mt. Kmbl. 28, 9. Wesaþ hále valete , Wrt. Voc. ii. 88, 61. Wesaþ þancfulle, Blickl. Homl. 169, 16. Wísfæsto wossaþ gié perfecti estote , Rtl. 13, 19. Wese hé hrægle gelíc, Ps. Th. 108, 19. Hit næs geséne hweðer hé seóc wǽre (had been ), Homl. Skt. i. 6, 259. Ðæt Adam leng ána wǽre. Cd. Th. 11, 5; Gen. 170. Ofermód wesan, 17, 20; Gen. 262. Uossa oestig esse devota , Rtl. 15, 21. Giscroepo uossa aptas fieri , 117, 14: ¶ used impersonally :-- Ðá wæs on ofne windig and wynsum, Cd. Th. 237, 31 ; Dan. 346. Settan mé ðǽr mé unswǽsost wæs posuerunt me in abominationem sibi , Ps. Th. 87, 8. Ðǽr him leófost wæs, Byrht. Th. 132, 29; By. 23. Swá him gemédost wæs, Andr. Kmbl. 1188; An. 594. (In the last three passages the superlatives might be taken as adverbs. Cf. I. 7.) III a. with a predicative genitive Ðá sóna wæs Eþelwald ðæs wordes, ðæt hé nó ðes rihtes wiðsacan wolde, Chart. Th. 140, 10. Wæs seó eorla gedriht ánes módes, Cd. Th. 197, 10; Exod. 304. His þegnas wǽron flǽsclíces módes, Blickl. Homl. 17, 5. III b. with prepositional phrases, 1. prep, and noun Ic wæs mid weorþmende on neorxna wange, and ic ðæt ne ongeat, Blickl. Homl. 89, 8. Ðá wæs cyning on hreón móde, Beo. Th. 2617 ; B. 1307. Sóna wæs hé on sunde, 3240; B. 1618. Ðú on sǽlum wes, 2345 ; B. 1170. Wesan him on wynne, Cd. Th. 23, 29 ; Gen. 367. ¶ used impersonally :-- Ðá wæs ofer midde niht, ðæt hé frægn cum jam mediae noctis tempus esset transcensum, interrogavit, Bd. 4, 24 ; S. 598, 35. 2. with gerundial infinitive Ne wæs ðæt tó wundrianne, Bd. 3, 12; S. 537, 17. Hwæt him be ðam tó dónne wǽre, Homl. Th. i. 502, 24: 506, 24. III c. with a clause :-- Héé IV. with participles, 1. with present participles Swá ic him secgende wæs, Andr. Kmbl. 1898; An. 951. On ǽfenne ðære nihte ðe hé of worulde gangende wæs nocte qua de saeculo erat exiturus , Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 30. Wæs se engel sprecende, Blickl. Homl. 5, 2. Hé wæs Drihtne fylgende, 15, 28 : Beo. Th. 321 ; B. 159. Hé in byrgenne bídende wæs, Elen. Kmbl. 966 ; El. 484. Se hálga wer hergende wæs Metodes miltse, Cd. Th. 237, 8; Dan. 334. Hí ðǽr stondende wǽron, Blickl. Homl. 11, 23. Hí on ðæt folc winnende wǽron, Ors. 1, 10; Swt. 46, 6: 44, 19. Woeron (wérun, Rush.) sprecende erant loquentes, Mk. Skt. Lind. 9, 4. Hwæðer sincende sǽflód ðá gyt wǽre, Cd. Th. 86, 29; Gen. 1438. Wríðende sceal mǽgðe ðínre monrím wesan, 105, 33; Gen. 1763. 2. with past participles, a. of transitive verbs forming the passive Ðonne wesaþ ðíne handa sóna geedneówode, and beóþ swá hié ǽr wǽron, Blickl. Homl. 153, 11. Wǽr ðú gewurðod, Cd. Th. 127, 7; Gen. 2107. Hwǽr áhangen wæs rodera Waldend, Elen. Kmbl. 409 ; El. 205. Ðeós geofu on heora heortan álegd wes, Blickl. Homl. 137, 4. Ealle þing wǽron geworhte (facta sunt ) ðurh hyne, and nán þing næs geworht bútan him, Jn. Skt. 1, 3. Ða ðe ðurh geleáfan gehǽlede wǽron qui credendo salvati sunt, Bd. 4, 16; S. 584, 20. Wesaþ gé fram Gode gebletsade benedicti vos a Domino , Ps. Th. 113, 23. Ðæt ic wese gelǽded quis deducet me? 107, 9. Wese heora beód wended on grine fiat mensa eorum in laqueum , 68, 23. Wesan ealle gedréfde turbabuntur , 67, 5. Ne wesen hí mid sóðfæstum áwritene cum justis non scribantur , 68, 29. Ðæt wǽron álýsede leófe ðíne ut liberentur dilecti tui , 59, 4. Se magorinc sceal wesan Ismahél háten, Cd. Th. 138, 3; Gen. 2286. Forgifen weosan, Bd. 4, 22; M. 330, 16: 4, 23; M. 340, 15. b. of intransitive verbs Ðú wǽre geworden . . . cild ácenned, Exon. Th. 14, 8; Cri. 216. Ðá wæs ðæs folces fela on án fæsten óþflogen (confugerant ), Ors. 4, 11; Swt. 206, 12. Ðá wæs forð cumen geóc æfter gyrne, Andr. Kmbl. 3167 ; An. 1586. Ðá wæs first ágán, 293; An. 147: Elen. Kmbl. 1; El. 1. Ðá wæs geworden ðæt . . . , Blickl. Homl. 15, 15. Giwédo his giwordne wérun scínende, Mk. Skt. Rush. 9, 3. Gif ic ðæs sægde, ðæt mín sylfes fót ásliden wǽre si dícebam: " Motus est pes meus, " Ps. Th. 93, 17. [Goth. wisan: O. Sax. wesan: O. Frs. wesa: O. H. Ger. wesan: Icel. vera.] v. fore-, ge-wesan, nesan; efen-wesende.
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