witan
Morphological Analysis
Wordclass: Verb
Verb Class: Preterite-Present
Related §§ in Wright's OE Grammar:
§1,
In the OE text, the length is:indicated by acute accentsindicated by macronsnot indicated.
witan
prs. ic, hé wát, ðú wást, wǽst, pl. wé witon; p. wiste; pp. witen. I. to wit, know, have knowledge, be aware, 1. absolute Noui ic can oððe ic wát, noui ic wiste, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Zup. 205, 8. Oft wé oferswiðdon swá swá ðú sylf wistest, Homl. Skt. i. 11, 27. Ne meahte hire Iudas, ne ful gere wiste, sweotole gecýðan, Elen. Kmbl. 1717; El. 860, Ne ongeátan hí, ne geara wistan nescierunt, neque intellexerunt, Ps. Th. 81, 5. Giefe monigfealdran ðonne ǽnig mon wite, Exon. Th. 177, 4; Gú, 1221. Hé wæccende ðóhte ðæt hé nó witende (nesciens )áræfnode, Bd. 1, 27; S. 497, 8. Ic oft swór mǽne áðas ge weotende ge nytende, Anglia xi. 99, 65. Ða gáð libbende and witende on helle ad infernum viventes sentientesque descendunt, Past. 55; Swt, 429, 27. Hié æt níhstan witende mid deófolcræftum sóhton hú hí hit gestillan mehte, Ors. 3, 10; Swt. 140, 7. Ða ðe him ne ondrǽdaþ witende (sciendo ) syngian, Bd. 1, 27; S. 491, 37. Ne weotendum (nescientibus ) oþþe nó gýmendum ðǽm hyrdum ðære stówe, 4, 3; S. 570, 12. 2. with acc., to know something, have knowledge of, be aware of Hwanun wát (witto, Lind., wito, Rush. sciam ) ic ðis? Lk. Skt. 1, 18. Ne ic ǽniges wát hæleða gehygdo, Andr. Kmbl, 398; An, 199. Ðú wást ða menniscan týddernysse, Blickl. Homl. 243, 30: Ps. C, 31. Ðú wǽst and const ánra gehwylces earfeðsíðas, Andr. Kmbl. 2566; An. 1284. Crist ealle wát góde dǽde, Exon. Th, 449, 7; Dóm. 67: Blickl, Homl. 19, 33. Ǽlc here hæfð ðý læssan cræft ðonne hé cymð, gif hine mon ǽr wát (if people know of it ), ǽr hé cume, Past. 56; Swt, 433, 28. Hé manna ingehygd wát and can, Blickl. Homl, 179, 26. Ne magon wé hit ná dyrnan, for ðam ðe hit Drihten wát, Hy, 7, 93: Exon. Th. 183, 11; Gú. 1325. Manna geþóhtas nǽnig mon ne wát, Blickl. Homl. 181, 11: Ps. Th, 73, 17: Hy. 3, 32. Wé gewislíce witon (know of) unrím ðara monna ðe ða écan gesǽlða sóhtan multos scimus beatitudinis fructum quaesisse, Bt. 11, 2; Fox 36, 2: Elen. Kmbl, 1285; El. 644, Rincum ðe béc witan, Exon. Th. 429, 19; Rä, 43, 7. Ic wiste hira sár sciens dolorem ejus, Ex. 3, 8. Hé heora lotwrencas wiste, Mk. Skt. 12, 15. Hé wiste sprǽca fela, Cd. Th. 29, 5; Gen, 445. Ðeáh ðe hé hit ǽr wisðe, Past. 35; Swt, 243, 3. Hé ne wisse word ne angin, Cd. Th. 223, 25; Dan. 125. Ealle ða ðe ðone gylt mid him wiston conscii servi, Ors, 4, 4; Swt. 164, 2. Ða swíðe lytle fiorme ðara bóca wiston very little profitable matter in those books did they know, Past. pref.; Swt. 5, 11. Yldo bearn ǽr ne cúðon, þeáh hié fela wiston, Cd. Th. 179, 16; Exod. 29. Metod hié ne cúþon, ne wiston hié Drihten God, Beo. Th. 365; B. 181. Gé sweltaþ deáðe, nymþe ic dóm wite swefnes, Cd. Th. 224, 29; Dan. 143, Nis ðæt eówer ðæt gé witan ða þráge and ða tíde non est vestrum nosse tempora et momenta, Blickl. Homl. 117, 24. Ða mildestan ðara ðe men witen, Exon. Th. 255, 1; Jul. 207. Gé ne magon witan ðæra tída tácnu, Mt. Kmbl. 16, 3: Exon. Th. 339, 11; Gn. Ex. 92. Gerím witan heardra heteþonca, 261, 13; Jul. 261. Ús Hǽlend God onwráh, ðæt wé hine witan mótan, 24, 14; Cri. 384: Beo. Th. 509; B. 252. Ǽghwæþres sceal scearp scyldwiga gescád witan worda and weorca, 582; B. 288. Wytan, Hy. 3, 17. Dó hit mon ús tó witanne, Past, 46; Swt, 357, 5. Béc ða ðe niédbeðearfosta sién eallum monnum tó wietonne, pref.; Swt, 7, 7. Tó wietenne, 15; Swt. 92, 26. Witende (scientes ) ǽgðer ge gód ge yfel, Gen. 3, 5. Witendum (weotendum, Ps, Surt.) ðé scientibus te, Ps. Spl. 35, 11. Nán þing nis behýdd ðæt ne sý witen (quod non sciatur ), Lk. Skt. 12, 2. 3. with acc. and infin. Ðǽr ic seomian wát ðínne sigebróðor bendum fæstne, Andr. Kmbl, 365; An. 183. Wé witun ðé bilewitne wesan, Coll. Monast, Th. 18, 22. Ðara cynna monige hé wiste on Germanie wesan, Bd. 5, 9; S. 622, 14: Exon. Th. 182, 20; Gú. 1313: 248, 16; Jul. 91. Wisse, 436, 15; Rä. 55, 1: 324, 28; Víd. 101. Ðǽr ðú wite elenan standan, Lchdm. ii, 346, 10. 4. with acc. and complementary word or phrase For ðære byldo ðe ic tó him wát, Blickl. Homl. 179, 21. Ic ðé on ðyssum hýnðum wát wyrmum tó wiste, Soul Kmbl. 303; Seel. 155. Ic mé ðæt wát tó helpe, Ps. Th. 51, 7. Ic wát heáhburh hér áne neáh, Cd. Th. 152, 8; Gen. 2517. Ic hine goodne wát, Ps. Th. 53, 6: 106, 1: Beo. Th. 3731; B. 1863: Hy. 1, 3. Ne wát ic mé beworhtne wulle flýsum, Exon. Th. 417, 11; Rä. 36, 3. Ðú wǽst ðé bǽles cwealm hátne in helle, Andr. Kmbl. 2374; An. 1188. Hé wát his sincgiefan biheledne, Exon. Th. 183, 13; Gú. 1326: 311, 15; Seef. 92. For ðam ǽrende ðæt hé tó ús eallum wát, 451, 34; Dóm. 113. Hý him in wuldre witon Waldendes giefe, 76, 23; Cri, 1244: 107, 20; Gú. 61. Ðú wýsctest ðæt ðú wistest Crist on róde áhangenne, Blickl. Honil. 85, 34: Ps. Th. 118, 21. Ða heó séleste wiste, Elen. Kmbl. 2404; El. 1203: Cd. Th. 3, 26; Gen, 41: Beo. Th. 1297; B. 646. Hé wende hine ðǽr hé wiste handgeweorc heofencyninges, Cd. Th, 31, 32; Gen. 494: 169, 3; Gen. 2793: 259, 1; Dan. 685: Exon. Th. 162, 16; Gú. 976. Hé aldorþegn deádne wisse, Beo. Th. 2623; B. 1309: Cd. Th. 249, 25; Dan. 535. Ðæt hé wiste hine scyldigne, Chart. Th. 166, 33. Hié ðone here tóweardne wiston, Blickl. Homl. 79, 13: Shrn. 86, 3: Exon. Th, 459, 20; Hö. 2. Ne mé unrihtes on áwiht wistan, Ps. Th. 58, 3. Wiston him be súðan Sigelwara land, Cd. Th. 182, 1; Exod. 69. Wisson, Beo. Th. 498; B. 246. Gif hé hine sylfne wite ðæs clnne, L. C. E. 5; Th. i. 362, 9. 5. with a clause, a. without connecting word Ic wát ðú eart Godes hálga, Mk. Skt. 1, 24: Cd. Th. 24, 30; Gen. 385: 35, 8; Gen. 551. Ic wát þeáh, gif ðé ǽfre gewyrð ðæt ... þonne gesihst ðú ..., Bt. 36, 2; Fox 174, 24, Wé witon hé úre wæs wealdend, Blickl. Homl. 243, 17. Wiste hé his bearn on myclum ymbhygdum wǽron, 131, 26. Wite ðé be ðissum, gif ðú eádmódne eorl geméte, ðam bið gæst gegæderad Godes ágen bearn, Exon. Th, 318, 4; Mód. 77. b. with introductory ðæt Ic wát (novi ), ðæt ðú eart wlitig, Gen. 12, 11. Ic wát (scio ), ðæt ðú swá didest, 20, 6. Ic wát (cognovi ), ðæt Drihten ys mǽre, Ex. 18, 11. Ic wát (uát, Lind., wátt, Rush. scio ), ðæt seó cýðnes is sóð, Jn. Skt. 5, 32: Cd. Th, 35, 22; Gen. 558. Ic wát and can, ðæt ðú mín God wǽre agnovi quoniam Deus meus es tu, Ps. Th. 55, 8. Ic wát geare, ðæt ..., Beo. Th. 5306; B. 2656. Ðú wást, ðæt ic eom untýmende, Gen. 16, 2: Jn. Skt. 21, 15: Ps. Th. 68, 6. Wé weotan, ðæt wé ðæs ðearfe nabbaþ, Bd. 2, 5; S. 507, 21. Se hellsceaða wiste, ðæt hié Godes yrre habban sceoldon, Cd. Th, 43, 23; Gen. 695. Wisse, Beo. Th. 4668; B. 2339. Ða men wisson (wisston, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 196, 8), ðæt ..., Met. 26, 100. Westan, Judth. Thw. 24, 26; Jud. 207, Wé witon (uutton, Lind., wntun, Rush. scimus ), ðæt hé is synful, Jn. Skt. 9, 24, 29, 31, Wé wuton (wutan, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 22, 16. Wite gé (wutas gié, Lind., gé wutan, Rush. scitis ), ðæt ..., 26, 2: Mk. Skt. 10, 41, Wit ðú, ðæt ic eom drý, Blickl. Homl. 183, 17. Witaþ gé, ðæt hit swá nis scitote, quia non est mea, Bd, 4, 8; S. 576, 2. Witaþ (wutas gié, Lind.), ðæt ..., Mt. Kmbl. 24, 43: Lk. Skt. 10, 11: Ps. Th. 99, 2. Wite gé, ðæt ... scitote, quoniam ..., Ps. Th, 4, 4; Blickl. Homl. 191, 36. Wite ðú, ðæt ... scito, quod ..., Gen. 15, 13: Jud. 6, 14: Blickl. Homl. 181, 11: 183, 18: Elen. Kmbl. 1889; El 946. Wite hé, ðæt hé bið wana, Blickl. Homl. 17, 36. Suá suá hié selfe wieten, ðæt hié hit for Gode dón, Past. 28; Swt. 191, 2. Witen, Met. 19, 23, Se reccere sceal geornlíce wietan, ðætte ..., Past. 20; Swt, 149, 1. Ðæm láreówe is tó wietanne, ðæt ..., 63; Swt, 459, 6. Tó witenne, Blickl. Homl, 63, 5: 129, 26: 209, 19. (bb) with for ðon ðe :-- Crist ðá wiste, for ðon ðe (quia ) se hálga ðá slép, Blickl. Homl. 235, 13. c. with indirect interrogative forms Ic wát hwæt hé þenceþ, Blickl. Homl. 181, 10: Cd. Th. 34, 10; Gen. 535. Ic wát hwá mé ferede, Andr. Kmbl. 1808; An. 906. Ic ne wát hwǽr ðú eart, Blickl. Homl. 241, 7: Exon. Th. 496, 21; Rä. 85, 18. Ðú cans eal ðis wésten, and wásð hwǽr wé wician magon, Past, 41; Swt, 304, 16. Ðú wást and canst hú ðú lifian scealt, Cd. Th. 56, 23; Gen. 916. Wást ðú hú ðeós ádle scyle ende gesettan? Exon. Th. 163, 16; Gú. 994. Eówer Fæder wát hwæs eów þearf biþ, Blickl. Homl. 21, 1. Wé witon hwelce wælhriównessa Neron weorhte, Bt. 16, 4; Fox 56, 36. Ne wuti gé of hwelc tíd hláferd íwer tó cymmende sié, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 24, 42, Gif ic wiste hú ..., Beo. Th. 5032; B. 2519. Ðæt ðú wisse (wistest, v.l. ) hwæs ðú wundredest, Bt, 41, 4; Fox 252, 14. Ne wiste hé hwonne him fǽmnan tó brýde wǽron, Cd. Th. 157, 5; Gen. 2600. Ðæt wé wissen (wiston, v.l. ) hwæt hé wǽre, Bt. 42; Fox 256, 2. Ðæt ic wite gearwe on hwylcne weg ic gange, Ps. Th. 142, 9. Wite ðú hú wíd and síd helheoðo, and mid hondum ámet, Cd. Th. 308, 27; Sat. 699. Wé witon magon hú swíþe ús is ðes dæg tó mǽrsienne, Blickl. Homl. 161, 7: 47, 21. Gif ðú witan wille hwæt gedón wæs, 177, 1, d. with gif Ðú wást gif hit is swá wé secgan hýrdon, Beo. Th. 550; B. 272. 6. with the construction of 2. and of 5. . a. 2. and (5b) Án þing ic wát, ðæt ic wæs blind, and ðæt ic nú geseó, Jn. Skt. 9, 25. Wát ic ðæt nú ðá, ðæt hé bið alles leás écan dreámes, Cd. Th. 275, 34; Sat, 181: Andr. Kmbl. 866; An, 433. Ðú wást míne geheówunga, ðæt ic eom dust, Blickl. Homl. 89, 15. Ðæt ðú wást, ðæt ic wæs deád, 183, 13. Ða ðe hit witon, ðæt hié him þeówiaþ, Bt. 21; Fox 72, 32. Ðæt ic gearwe wiste, ðæt ..., Exon. Th. 196, 7; Az. 170: Cd. Th. 24, 31; Gen. 386. Ðis wutaþ gié, ðætte geneólǽcaþ ríc Godes, Lk. Skt. Lind. 10, 11. Ǽr hé sóð wite, ðæt ða synfullan sáwla sticien helle tó middes, Salm. Kmbl. 342; Sal, 170. Hú mæg ic hit witan, ðæt ic hit ágan sceal unde scire possum, quod possessurus sim eam? Gen. 15, 8. b. with 2. and (5c) Ðú ðæt ána wást, hú mé módor gebær, Ps. C. 61. Gif ðú hit wást, hú ðú mǽre eart, Hy. 3, 20, Ðæt ne wát ǽnig, hú ða wísan sind wundorlíce, Exon. Th. 223, 10; Ph. 357. Ðæt ne wiste hé, hwæt se manna wæs, Andr. Kmbl. 521; An. 261. Ðæt hié ðæt wiston, hwonne hé ðisse worlde ende gesettan wolde, Blickl. Homl. 119, 9. Nis nǽnig mon ðe ðæt án wite, hú lange hé ðás gedón wille, hwæþer ðis þúsend sceole beón scyrtre ðe lengre, 119, 5. Ðæt ðú sóð wíte, hú ðæt geeode, Exon. Th. 28, 6; Cri. 442. Ðæt ic sóð wite, hwæðer ..., Andr. Kmbl. 1206; An. 603. Ne mæge wé ðæt sóð witan, hú ðú æðele eart, Hy. 3, 13. c. with 2. and (5d) Gif hé synful is, ðæt ic nát, Jn. Skt. 9, 25, 7. with preposition be Wé witon bí monnum, se se ðe bitt ðone mono ðæt him ðingie wið óðerne ðe hé bið ierre, ðæt irsigende mód hé gegremeð, Past. 10; Swt. 63, 11. Hié wiston ge be heora sige, ge eác be ðara hǽþenra manna fleáme they knew both about their victory and about the heathens' flight, Blickl. Homl. 203, 3. Se consul heora ungemet ofslóg and sige hæfde; be ðæm mon mehte witan, ðá hé and ða consulas hié átellan ne mehton quot millia hominum interfecta, quot capta sint, ipse consul ostendit; qui, cum multitudinem capti populi referre vellet, numerum explicare non potuit, Ors. 3, 10; Swt. 140, 30. Be ðam æfteran is tó witanne, ðæt hé wæs tó biscope gehálgod de secundo intimandum, quod in episcopatum fuerit ordinatus, Bd, 4, 23; S. 594, 11. II. to be wise, be in one's senses Dá wéndon hí ðæt hé tela ne wiste, ac ðæt hé wédde vulgus aestimabat eum insanire, Bd. 2, 13; S. 517, 10. 'Geseoh ðæt ðú teala wite.' Cwæþ hé: 'Ne wéde ic' vide ut sanum sapias. Non, inquit, insanio, 5, 13; S. 632, 32. III. to be conscious of, to know fear, pity, etc., to feel, shew respect, honour, etc. Wát ic sorga ðý má, Cd. Th. 54, 33; Gen. 886. For hwonwást ðú weán? 54, 12; Gen. 876. Hit máre ne wát búton gnornunge, Met, 3, 9. Se wyrsa ne wát on his mǽgwinum máran áre, Salm. Kmbl. 717; Sal. 358. Hió him tó litelne ege tó witan they feel too little awe of him, Wulfst, 220, 27. Ðú ðæs þonc ne wisses thou knewest (feltest) no gratitude for it, Exon. Th. 85, 5; Cri. 1386: 90, 15; Cri. 1474. Ðone ðe in meoduhealle mine wisse (should feel affection ), oþþe mec fréfran wolde, 288, 7; Wand. 27. Ic lǽrde ðæt ǽlc on óþrum árwyrþnesse wiste, Blicki. Homl. 185, 13. Hé him forgeaf ðone níð ðe hé tó him wiste, Ors. 5, 15; Swt. 250, 25. Hé sár ne wiste, Cd. Th. 12, 3; Gen. 179. Hié sorge wiht, weorces ne wiston, 49, 2; Gen. 786. Ðæt is tó wundrianne, ðæt ða Egipti swá lytle þoncunge wiston Iósepe, Ors. 1, 5; Swt. 34, 32. Ðæt hí nǽnige incan tó him wiston se mentem ad ilium ab omni ira remotam habere, Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 41. Wite máran þanc ðæs ðe ðú hæbbe, ðonne ðæs ðe ðú wéne, Prov. Kmbl. 22. Ǽlc ðe gescád wite every rational person, L. C. S. 75; Th. i, 424, 19. Ðæt hé on ðam griðe micle mǽðe wite that he shew great respect to that 'grið,' L. Eth. vii. 31; Th. i. 336, 14. Gif man on Godes griðe mǽðe witan wolde, Wulfst. 161, 3. Ne wolde hé ǽnige áre witan on ðære Cristenan ǽfestnysse nec religioni Christianae aliquid inpendebat honoris, Bd. 2, 20; S. 521, 29. Ðú mé noldest þanc witan mínra góda, Wulfst. 261, 10. Ná heáge witende non alta sapientes, Scint. 19, 2. [He wald ha witen (witten, wist, v.ll.), C. M. 10793. Goth. witan; prs. wait, pl. witun; p. wissa: O. Sax. witan; prs. wét, pl. witun; p. wissa: O. Frs. wita; prs. wét, pl. witen, witath: O. H. Ger. wizzan; prs. weiz, pl. wizzun; p. wissa, wista, westa; pp. wizzan: Icel. vita; prs. veit, pl. vitu; p. vissa; pp. vitinn.] v. be-, ge-witan, nytan, un-witende.
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