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Anglo-Saxon

Dictionary online

wesan

  • verb [ stronganomalous ]
Dictionary links
Grammar
wesan, p. wæs, pl. wǽron
Wright's OE grammar
§52; §54; §80; §94; §194; §263; §267; §279; §306; §307; §474; §505; §548; §616;
To be
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  • Wesan and beón

    fore,

      Wrt. Voc. ii. 34, 61.
as an independent verb,
denoting existence
to be, exist
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  • Wesendum, beóndum

    existentibus,

      Wrt. Voc. ii. 32, 63.
of animate objects,
to exist, live
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  • Wesaþ and weaxaþ ealle werþeóde, lifgaþ bi ðám lissum ðe ús Dryhten sette,

      Exon. Th. 192, 30; Az. 113.
  • On frymðe wæs word,

      Jn. Skt. 1, 1.
  • God ðe ǽr worulde wæs,

      Ps. Th. 54, 19.
  • Ða hwíle ðe hé wæs

    while he lived,

      Chart. Th. 167, 9.
  • Manige hálge wítgan wǽran ǽr Sancte Ióhanne,

      Blickl. Homl. 161, 12.
  • Ðæt hé his móste brúcan, ða hwíle ðe hé wǽre,

      Chart. Th. 140, 30.
  • Swaðer uncer leng wǽre (cf. swaðer uncer leng lifede, 38),

      485, 29.
  • Swilce hé áwár wǽre, ǽr ðan ðe hé geboren wǽre, ac . . . him betere wǽre, ðæt hé nǽfre nǽre, ðonne hé yfele wǽre,

      Homl. Th. ii. 244, 19.
  • Ne mæg ic hér leng wesan,

      Beo. Th. 5595; B. 2801.
  • Hé bið á wesende,

      Blickl. Homl. 19, 26.
of inanimate objects
Show examples
  • Him is eall andweard, ge ðætte ǽr wæs, ge ðætte nú is, ge ðætte æfter ús bið,

      Bt. 42; Fox 256, 28.
  • Ǽr woruld wǽre,

      Ps. Th. 73, 12.
  • Seó þrág gewát, swá heó nó wǽre,

      Exon. Th. 292, 9; Wand. 96.
  • Hé him tó frófre lét forð wesan hyrstedne hróf,

      Cd. Th. 58, 33; Gen. 955.
where an object exists, and so may be found; where in modern English
there precedes the verb
Show examples
  • Wæs ðara manna . . . endleofan síþum hund teóntig þúsenda,

      Blickl. Homl. 79, 17.
  • Wǽron monge, ða ðe Meotude gehýrdun,

      Exon. Th. 228, 24; Ph. 443.
  • Ðá wǽron monige ðe his mǽg wriðon,

      Beo. Th. 5956; B. 2982.
  • Him þúhte ðæt ðanon wǽre tó helle duru hund þúsenda míla,

      Cd. Th. 310, 7; Sat. 722.
denoting presence, stay of longer or shorter duration,
to be, stand, have place, dwell
Show examples
  • On ðære gesihðe wesaþ ealle geleáffulle,

      Blickl. Homl. 13, 28.
  • Ic wæs (

    I have been

    ) sixtýne síðum on sǽbáte,
      Andr. Kmbl. 977; An. 489.
  • Ic ongiten hæbbe ðæt ðú on faroðstrǽte feor ne wǽre,

      1796; An. 900.
  • Wǽre ðú mid ðínum fæder? Blickl. Homl. 151, 26.
  • Wóp wæs wíde,

      Cd. Th. 180, 8; Exod. 42.
  • Ðæt hé léte hyne licgean, ðǽr hé longe wæs,

      Beo. Th. 6157; B. 3082.
  • Ðæt word wæs mid Gode,

      Jn. Skt. 1, 1.
  • Heó wæs mid twám werum

    she lived with two husbands,

      Homl. Skt. i. 20, 3.
  • Ðonne wæs hé mid his ágnum cynne,

      Bt. 5, 1; Fox 10, 10.
  • Wé mid englum uppe wǽron,

      Cd. Th. 289, 2; Sat. 391.
  • Ða ðe ðǽr ǽr inne wǽron,

      Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 35.
  • Ða ðe him on neáweste wǽron,

      Ors. 1, 10; Swt. 46, 2.
  • Ðǽr manna wese mǽst ætgædere,

      Ps. Th. 78, 10.
  • Wese ús beorhtnes ofer,

      89, 19.
  • Wesan hí wið Drihtne,

      108, 19.
  • Wǽre ðǽr hé wǽre,

      Bt. 5, 1; Fox 10, 9, 10: Elen. Kmbl. 317; El. 159.
  • Gelimplíc wæs ðæt ða ætgædere wǽron on écre stówe,

      Blickl. Homl. 133, 24.
  • Ðæt hié ongieton mín mægen on ðé wesan,

      241, 15.
  • Ðara cynna monige hé wiste on Germanie wesan,

      Bd. 5, 9; S. 622, 14.
  • Ne mæg hé be ðý wedre wesan

    he cannot stop in the open air,

      Exon. Th. 340, 18; Gn. Ex. 113.
  • Gód is ús hér tó wossanne,

      Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 17, 4: Mk. Skt. Lind. 9, 5.
  • Wosanne (wosane,

      Rush.), Lk. Skt. Lind. 9, 33: Mk. Skt. Rush. 9, 5.
where motion takes place
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  • Ðá wǽron wit twégen on ánum olfende þurh ðæt rúme wésten, and wit unc simble ondrédon hwonne wit sceoldon feallan of ðam olfende,

      Shrn. 38, 14.
  • Hí wǽron heom tó Lundene weard,

      Chr. 1052; Erl. 185, 4.
denoting condition,
nature of persons,
to be, live
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  • Ne wosas gé swǽ légeras,

      Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 6, 5.
  • Him betere wǽre ðæt hé nǽfre nǽre, ðonne hé yfele wǽre,

      Homl. Th. ii. 244, 21.
  • Ðonne gé fæston, nellon gé wesan (wosa,

      Lind.) swylce leáse líceteras, Mt. Kmbl. 6, 16. (v. III c.)
condition or state of things
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  • Se hálga heáp wæs sprecende mid eallum gereordum; and eác, ðæt wunderlícor wæs, ðá ðá heora án bodade mid ánre sprǽce, ǽlcum wæs geþúht, ðe ða bodunge gehýrde, swilce hé sprǽce mid his gereorde,

      Homl. Th. i. 318, 26.
  • Wese swá,

      Ps. Th. 71, 20: 88, 45.
  • Lǽtaþ ðis ðus wesan,

      Blickl. Homl. 69, 17: 75, 31.
to be, to be done, come to pass, happen
Show examples
  • On ðǽm dagum wæs ðæt Liber Pater oferwan Indéa ðeóde,

      Ors. 1, 6; Swt. 36, 17.
  • On ðære tíde wæs sió ofermycelo hǽto,

      1, 7; Swt. 40, 3.
  • On ðæm geáre ðe ðiss wæs,

      2, 1; Swt. 60, 17: Chr. 1048; Erl. 180, 19.
  • Git ðæt wæs, ðæt hé tó cyninges simbla gelaþod wǽre,

      Bd. 3, 5; S. 527, 2: Blickl. Homl. 11, 23: Wulfst. 9, 11: 12, 14.
  • Hwæt wille gé nú hwæt ic hire doo? . . . Wese hit nú be eówrum dómum,

      Blickl. Homl. 157, 7.
  • Ðý læs ðæt wǽre, ðæt hé ǽnig ðara góda forylde,

      213, 23.
  • Tó wosanne onginnaþ

    fieri incipient,

      Lk. Skt. Lind. 21, 7.
to be, have result, turn out (v. wá,
I.)
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  • Se hálga gebæd for ðæt seóce cyld, and him wæs sóna bet (

    it was better with him at once, i. e. he was better ),

      Homl. Skt. i. 3, 311.
  • Námon tó rǽde, ðæt him wærlícor wǽre, ðæt hí sumne dǽl heora landes wurðes æthæfdon

    they resolved that keeping back part of the price of the land would turn out more safely for them,

      Homl. Th. i. 316, 24.
  • Hé ðóhte hine him tó yrfewearde gedón. Ac ðæt hwæþere swá wesan ne mihte,

      Bd. 5, 19 ; S. 638, 23.
with dat. of person,
to belong to, for a person
to have something
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  • Him wæs beorht wela,

      Cd. Th. 96, 32 ; Gen. 1603 : 216, 20; Dan. 9.
  • Ðam wæs Crist nama,

      Andr. Kmbl. 2646; An. 1324.
  • Ne him wese ǽnig fultum,

      Ps. Th. 108, 12.
  • Wesan him dagas deorce and feáwe,

      108, 8.
  • Ðæt ðám gengum gád ne wǽre wiste ne wǽde,

      Cd. Th. 222, 10; Dan. 102.
to affect, be the matter with
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  • Ðá frægn hé hine hwæt him wǽre,

      Bd. 4, 25 ; S. 600, 32.
with a predicative noun or pronoun,
to be
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  • God wæs ðæt word,

      Jn. Skt. 1 , 1.
  • Ðæt wæs gód cyning,

      Beo. Th. 22; B. 11.
  • Wæs hira Matheus sum,

      Andr. Kmbl. 22 ; An. 11.
  • Ðæt mon mæg gesión ðæt hí gió men wǽron,

      Bt. 37, 3 ; Fox 192, 3.
  • Wes ús freónd,

      Cd. Th. 165, 1; Gen. 2725.
  • Ic mæg wesan god,

      18, 35; Gen. 283.
  • Se ðe wæs leorningcniht on háde ongann wesan láreów on martyrdóme,

      Homl. Th. i. 50, 6.
  • Hwæt wile ðis wesan ? Blickl. Homl. 239, 29.
  • Sǽde hé ðæt hé hine cniht wesende gesáwe

    quod fanum se in pueritia vidisse testabatur

    ,
      Bd. 2, 15 ; S. 518, 36 : Exon. Th. 320, 34; Víd. 39.
  • On ðæm cniht wesendum ðá ðis hǽlo wundur geworden wæs

    in quo tunc puero factum erat hoc miraculum sanitatis

    ,
      Bd. 3, 12; S. 537, 17.
  • Umbor wesendum,

      Beo. Th. 2378 ; B. 1187.
  • Ic hine cúðe cniht wesende,

      750; B. 372.
with a predicative adjective or participle
Show examples
  • Hé edgeong weseþ,

      Exon. Th. 224, 10 ; Ph. 373.
  • Ðú ðé wǽre reód, and ic mé wæs blác; ðú wǽre glæd, and ic mé wæs unrót,

      L. E. I. proem. ; Th. ii. 398, 14.
  • Se beág wæs of þornum geworht,

      Exon. Th. 88, 27; Cri. 1446.
  • Þeód wæs oflysted,

      Andr. Kmbl. 2226; An. 1115.
  • Cyning wæs áfyrhted,

      Elen. Kmbl. 112 ; El. 56.
  • Ðá wæs gesýne ðæt sige forgeaf cyning ælmihtig, 287 ; El. 144.
  • Wes ðú behýdig and gemyndig,

      Blickl. Homl. 67, 32.
  • Hál wæs ðú

    aue

    ,
      Mt. Kmbl. 27, 30.
  • Hál westú,

      Blickl. Homl. 143, 17.
  • Westú gearo,

      Bd. 5, 19; S. 640, 44.
  • Hále wese gé (wosaþ gié, Lind.)

    auete

    ,
      Mt. Kmbl. 28, 9.
  • Wesaþ hále

    valete

    ,
      Wrt. Voc. ii. 88, 61.
  • Wesaþ þancfulle,

      Blickl. Homl. 169, 16.
  • Wísfæsto wossaþ gié

    perfecti estote

    ,
      Rtl. 13, 19.
  • Wese hé hrægle gelíc,

      Ps. Th. 108, 19.
  • Hit næs geséne hweðer hé seóc wǽre (

    had been

    ),
      Homl. Skt. i. 6, 259.
  • Ðæt Adam leng ána wǽre. Cd. Th. 11,

      5; Gen. 170.
  • Ofermód wesan,

      17, 20; Gen. 262.
  • Uossa oestig

    esse devota

    ,
      Rtl. 15, 21.
  • Giscroepo uossa

    aptas fieri

    ,
      117, 14: ¶ used impersonally :-- Ðá
    wæs on ofne windig and wynsum, Cd. Th. 237, 31 ; Dan. 346.
  • Settan mé ðǽr mé unswǽsost wæs

    posuerunt me in abominationem sibi

    ,
      Ps. Th. 87, 8.
  • Ðǽr him leófost wæs,

      Byrht. Th. 132, 29; By. 23.
  • Swá him gemédost wæs,

      Andr. Kmbl. 1188; An. 594. (In
    the last three passages the superlatives might be taken as adverbs. Cf.
7.) III a. with a predicative genitive
Show examples
  • Ðá sóna wæs Eþelwald ðæs wordes, ðæt hé nó ðes rihtes wiðsacan wolde,

      Chart. Th. 140, 10.
  • Wæs seó eorla gedriht ánes módes,

      Cd. Th. 197, 10; Exod. 304.
  • His þegnas wǽron flǽsclíces módes,

      Blickl. Homl. 17, 5.
  • III b. with prepositional phrases,
prep, and noun
Show examples
  • Ic wæs mid weorþmende on neorxna wange, and ic ðæt ne ongeat,

      Blickl. Homl. 89, 8.
  • Ðá wæs cyning on hreón móde,

      Beo. Th. 2617 ; B. 1307.
  • Sóna wæs hé on sunde,

      3240; B. 1618.
  • Ðú on sǽlum wes, 2345 ; B. 1170.
  • Wesan him on wynne, Cd. Th. 23, 29 ; Gen. 367. ¶ used impersonally :-- Ðá wæs ofer midde niht, ðæt hé frægn

    cum jam mediae noctis tempus esset transcensum, interrogavit,

      Bd. 4, 24 ; S. 598, 35.
with gerundial infinitive
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  • Ne wæs ðæt tó wundrianne,

      Bd. 3, 12; S. 537, 17.
  • Hwæt him be ðam tó dónne wǽre,

      Homl. Th. i. 502, 24: 506, 24.
  • III c. with a clause :-- Héé
with participles,
with present participles
Show examples
  • Swá ic him secgende wæs,

      Andr. Kmbl. 1898; An. 951.
  • On ǽfenne ðære nihte ðe hé of worulde gangende wæs

    nocte qua de saeculo erat exiturus

    ,
      Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 30.
  • Wæs se engel sprecende,

      Blickl. Homl. 5, 2.
  • Hé wæs Drihtne fylgende,

      15, 28 : Beo. Th. 321 ; B. 159.
  • Hé in byrgenne bídende wæs,

      Elen. Kmbl. 966 ; El. 484.
  • Se hálga wer hergende wæs Metodes miltse,

      Cd. Th. 237, 8; Dan. 334.
  • Hí ðǽr stondende wǽron,

      Blickl. Homl. 11, 23.
  • Hí on ðæt folc winnende wǽron,

      Ors. 1, 10; Swt. 46, 6: 44, 19.
  • Woeron (wérun, Rush.) sprecende

    erant loquentes,

      Mk. Skt. Lind. 9, 4.
  • Hwæðer sincende sǽflód ðá gyt wǽre,

      Cd. Th. 86, 29; Gen. 1438.
  • Wríðende sceal mǽgðe ðínre monrím wesan,

      105, 33; Gen. 1763.
with past participles,
of transitive verbs forming the passive
Show examples
  • Ðonne wesaþ ðíne handa sóna geedneówode, and beóþ swá hié ǽr wǽron,

      Blickl. Homl. 153, 11.
  • Wǽr ðú gewurðod,

      Cd. Th. 127, 7; Gen. 2107.
  • Hwǽr áhangen wæs rodera Waldend,

      Elen. Kmbl. 409 ; El. 205.
  • Ðeós geofu on heora heortan álegd wes,

      Blickl. Homl. 137, 4.
  • Ealle þing wǽron geworhte (

    facta sunt

    ) ðurh hyne, and nán þing næs geworht bútan him,
      Jn. Skt. 1, 3.
  • Ða ðe ðurh geleáfan gehǽlede wǽron

    qui credendo salvati sunt,

      Bd. 4, 16; S. 584, 20.
  • Wesaþ gé fram Gode gebletsade

    benedicti vos a Domino

    ,
      Ps. Th. 113, 23.
  • Ðæt ic wese gelǽded

    quis deducet me?

      107, 9.
  • Wese heora beód wended on grine

    fiat mensa eorum in laqueum

    ,
      68, 23.
  • Wesan ealle gedréfde

    turbabuntur

    ,
      67, 5.
  • Ne wesen hí mid sóðfæstum áwritene

    cum justis non scribantur

    ,
      68, 29.
  • Ðæt wǽron álýsede leófe ðíne

    ut liberentur dilecti tui

    ,
      59, 4.
  • Se magorinc sceal wesan Ismahél háten,

      Cd. Th. 138, 3; Gen. 2286.
  • Forgifen weosan,

      Bd. 4, 22; M. 330, 16: 4, 23; M. 340, 15.
of intransitive verbs
Show examples
  • Ðú wǽre geworden . . . cild ácenned,

      Exon. Th. 14, 8; Cri. 216.
  • Ðá wæs ðæs folces fela on án fæsten óþflogen (

    confugerant

    ),
      Ors. 4, 11; Swt. 206, 12.
  • Ðá wæs forð cumen geóc æfter gyrne,

      Andr. Kmbl. 3167 ; An. 1586.
  • Ðá wæs first ágán,

      293; An. 147: Elen. Kmbl. 1; El. 1.
  • Ðá wæs geworden ðæt . . . ,

      Blickl. Homl. 15, 15.
  • Giwédo his giwordne wérun scínende,

      Mk. Skt. Rush. 9, 3.
  • Gif ic ðæs sægde, ðæt mín sylfes fót ásliden wǽre

    si dícebam: " Motus est pes meus, "

      Ps. Th. 93, 17.
Etymology
[Goth. wisan: O. Sax. wesan: O. Frs. wesa: O. H. Ger. wesan: Icel. vera.]
Similar entries
v. fore-, ge-wesan, nesan; efen-wesende.
Linked entries
v.  cniht-wesende æt-eom a-weosung fóre-wesan eom weosan.
Full form

Word-wheel

  • wesan, v.