Bosworth Toller's

Anglo-Saxon

Dictionary online

witan

  • verb [ preterite-present ]
Dictionary links
Grammar
witan, prs. ic, hé wát, ðú wást, wǽst, pl. wé witon; p. wiste; pp. witen.
Wright's OE grammar
§1; §19; §30; §48; §96; §102; §133; §212; §213; §225; §232; §240; §263; §267; §298; §476; §540;
to wit, know, have knowledge, be aware,
absolute
Show examples
  • Noui ic can oððe ic wát,

    noui

    ic wiste,
      Ælfc. Gr. 33; Zup. 205, 8.
  • Oft wé oferswiðdon swá swá ðú sylf wistest,

      Homl. Skt. i. 11, 27.
  • Ne meahte hire Iudas, ne ful gere wiste, sweotole gecýðan, Elen. Kmbl. 1717; El. 860, Ne ongeátan hí, ne geara wistan

    nescierunt, neque intellexerunt,

      Ps. Th. 81, 5.
  • Giefe monigfealdran ðonne ǽnig mon wite,

      Exon. Th. 177, 4; Gú, 1221.
  • Hé wæccende ðóhte ðæt hé nó witende (

    nesciens

    )áræfnode,
      Bd. 1, 27; S. 497, 8.
  • Ic oft swór mǽne áðas ge weotende ge nytende, Anglia xi. 99, 65.
  • Ða gáð libbende and witende on helle

    ad infernum viventes sentientesque descendunt,

      Past. 55; Swt, 429, 27.
  • Hié æt níhstan witende mid deófolcræftum sóhton hú hí hit gestillan mehte,

      Ors. 3, 10; Swt. 140, 7.
  • Ða ðe him ne ondrǽdaþ witende (

    sciendo

    ) syngian,
      Bd. 1, 27; S. 491, 37.
  • Ne weotendum (

    nescientibus

    ) oþþe nó gýmendum ðǽm hyrdum ðære stówe,
      4, 3; S. 570, 12.
with acc., to know something,
have knowledge of, be aware of
Show examples
  • Hwanun wát (witto, Lind., wito, Rush.

    sciam

    ) ic ðis?
      Lk. Skt. 1, 18.
  • Ne ic ǽniges wát hæleða gehygdo,

      Andr. Kmbl, 398; An, 199.
  • Ðú wást ða menniscan týddernysse,

      Blickl. Homl. 243, 30: Ps. C, 31.
  • Ðú wǽst and const ánra gehwylces earfeðsíðas,

      Andr. Kmbl. 2566; An. 1284.
  • Crist ealle wát góde dǽde,

      Exon. Th, 449, 7; Dóm. 67: Blickl, Homl. 19, 33.
  • Ǽlc here hæfð ðý læssan cræft ðonne hé cymð, gif hine mon ǽr wát (

    if people know of it

    ), ǽr hé cume,
      Past. 56; Swt, 433, 28.
  • Hé manna ingehygd wát and can,

      Blickl. Homl, 179, 26.
  • Ne magon wé hit ná dyrnan, for ðam ðe hit Drihten wát,

      Hy, 7, 93: Exon. Th. 183, 11; Gú. 1325.
  • Manna geþóhtas nǽnig mon ne wát,

      Blickl. Homl. 181, 11: Ps. Th, 73, 17: Hy. 3, 32.
  • Wé gewislíce witon (know of) unrím ðara monna ðe ða écan gesǽlða sóhtan

    multos scimus beatitudinis fructum quaesisse,

      Bt. 11, 2; Fox 36, 2: Elen. Kmbl, 1285; El. 644,
    Rincum ðe béc witan, Exon. Th. 429, 19; Rä, 43, 7.
  • Ic wiste hira sár

    sciens dolorem ejus,

      Ex. 3, 8.
  • Hé heora lotwrencas wiste,

      Mk. Skt. 12, 15.
  • Hé wiste sprǽca fela,

      Cd. Th. 29, 5; Gen, 445.
  • Ðeáh ðe hé hit ǽr wisðe,

      Past. 35; Swt, 243, 3.
  • Hé ne wisse word ne angin,

      Cd. Th. 223, 25; Dan. 125.
  • Ealle ða ðe ðone gylt mid him wiston

    conscii servi,

      Ors, 4, 4; Swt. 164, 2.
  • Ða swíðe lytle fiorme ðara bóca wiston

    very little profitable matter in those books did they know,

      Past. pref.; Swt. 5, 11.
  • Yldo bearn ǽr ne cúðon, þeáh hié fela wiston,

      Cd. Th. 179, 16; Exod. 29.
  • Metod hié ne cúþon, ne wiston hié Drihten God,

      Beo. Th. 365; B. 181.
  • Gé sweltaþ deáðe, nymþe ic dóm wite swefnes, Cd. Th. 224, 29; Dan. 143, Nis ðæt eówer ðæt gé witan ða þráge and ða tíde

    non est vestrum nosse tempora et momenta,

      Blickl. Homl. 117, 24.
  • Ða mildestan ðara ðe men witen,

      Exon. Th. 255, 1; Jul. 207.
  • Gé ne magon witan ðæra tída tácnu,

      Mt. Kmbl. 16, 3: Exon. Th. 339, 11; Gn. Ex. 92.
  • Gerím witan heardra heteþonca,

      261, 13; Jul. 261.
  • Ús Hǽlend God onwráh, ðæt wé hine witan mótan,

      24, 14; Cri. 384: Beo. Th. 509; B. 252.
  • Ǽghwæþres sceal scearp scyldwiga gescád witan worda and weorca,

      582; B. 288.
  • Wytan,

      Hy. 3, 17.
  • Dó hit mon ús tó witanne,

      Past, 46; Swt, 357, 5.
  • Béc ða ðe niédbeðearfosta sién eallum monnum tó wietonne, pref.; Swt,

      7, 7.
  • Tó wietenne,

      15; Swt. 92, 26.
  • Witende (

    scientes

    ) ǽgðer ge gód ge yfel,
      Gen. 3, 5.
  • Witendum (weotendum, Ps, Surt.) ðé

    scientibus te,

      Ps. Spl. 35, 11.
  • Nán þing nis behýdd ðæt ne sý witen (

    quod non sciatur

    ),
      Lk. Skt. 12, 2.
with acc. and infin.
Show examples
  • Ðǽr ic seomian wát ðínne sigebróðor bendum fæstne,

      Andr. Kmbl, 365; An. 183.
  • Wé witun ðé bilewitne wesan,

      Coll. Monast, Th. 18, 22.
  • Ðara cynna monige hé wiste on Germanie wesan,

      Bd. 5, 9; S. 622, 14: Exon. Th. 182, 20; Gú. 1313: 248, 16; Jul. 91.
  • Wisse,

      436, 15; Rä. 55, 1: 324, 28; Víd. 101.
  • Ðǽr ðú wite elenan standan,

      Lchdm. ii, 346, 10.
with acc. and complementary word or phrase
Show examples
  • For ðære byldo ðe ic tó him wát,

      Blickl. Homl. 179, 21.
  • Ic ðé on ðyssum hýnðum wát wyrmum tó wiste, Soul Kmbl. 303; Seel. 155.
  • Ic mé ðæt wát tó helpe,

      Ps. Th. 51, 7.
  • Ic wát heáhburh hér áne neáh,

      Cd. Th. 152, 8; Gen. 2517.
  • Ic hine goodne wát,

      Ps. Th. 53, 6: 106, 1: Beo. Th. 3731; B. 1863: Hy. 1, 3.
  • Ne wát ic mé beworhtne wulle flýsum,

      Exon. Th. 417, 11; Rä. 36, 3.
  • Ðú wǽst ðé bǽles cwealm hátne in helle,

      Andr. Kmbl. 2374; An. 1188.
  • Hé wát his sincgiefan biheledne,

      Exon. Th. 183, 13; Gú. 1326: 311, 15; Seef. 92.
  • For ðam ǽrende ðæt hé tó ús eallum wát,

      451, 34; Dóm. 113.
  • Hý him in wuldre witon Waldendes giefe,

      76, 23; Cri, 1244: 107, 20; Gú. 61.
  • Ðú wýsctest ðæt ðú wistest Crist on róde áhangenne,

      Blickl. Honil. 85, 34: Ps. Th. 118, 21.
  • Ða heó séleste wiste,

      Elen. Kmbl. 2404; El. 1203: Cd. Th. 3, 26; Gen, 41: Beo. Th. 1297; B. 646.
  • Hé wende hine ðǽr hé wiste handgeweorc heofencyninges,

      Cd. Th, 31, 32; Gen. 494: 169, 3; Gen. 2793: 259, 1; Dan. 685: Exon. Th. 162, 16; Gú. 976.
  • Hé aldorþegn deádne wisse,

      Beo. Th. 2623; B. 1309: Cd. Th. 249, 25; Dan. 535.
  • Ðæt hé wiste hine scyldigne,

      Chart. Th. 166, 33.
  • Hié ðone here tóweardne wiston,

      Blickl. Homl. 79, 13: Shrn. 86, 3: Exon. Th, 459, 20; Hö. 2.
  • Ne mé unrihtes on áwiht wistan,

      Ps. Th. 58, 3.
  • Wiston him be súðan Sigelwara land,

      Cd. Th. 182, 1; Exod. 69.
  • Wisson,

      Beo. Th. 498; B. 246.
  • Gif hé hine sylfne wite ðæs clnne,

      L. C. E. 5; Th. i. 362, 9.
with a clause,
without connecting word
Show examples
  • Ic wát ðú eart Godes hálga,

      Mk. Skt. 1, 24: Cd. Th. 24, 30; Gen. 385: 35, 8; Gen. 551.
  • Ic wát þeáh, gif ðé ǽfre gewyrð ðæt ... þonne gesihst ðú ...,

      Bt. 36, 2; Fox 174, 24, Wé
    witon hé úre wæs wealdend, Blickl. Homl. 243, 17.
  • Wiste hé his bearn on myclum ymbhygdum wǽron,

      131, 26.
  • Wite ðé be ðissum, gif ðú eádmódne eorl geméte, ðam bið gæst gegæderad Godes ágen bearn,

      Exon. Th, 318, 4; Mód. 77.
with introductory
ðæt
Show examples
  • Ic wát (

    novi

    ), ðæt ðú eart wlitig,
      Gen. 12, 11.
  • Ic wát (

    scio

    ), ðæt ðú swá didest,
      20, 6.
  • Ic wát (

    cognovi

    ), ðæt Drihten ys mǽre,
      Ex. 18, 11.
  • Ic wát (uát, Lind., wátt, Rush.

    scio

    ), ðæt seó cýðnes is sóð,
      Jn. Skt. 5, 32: Cd. Th, 35, 22; Gen. 558.
  • Ic wát and can, ðæt ðú mín God wǽre

    agnovi quoniam Deus meus es tu,

      Ps. Th. 55, 8.
  • Ic wát geare, ðæt ...,

      Beo. Th. 5306; B. 2656.
  • Ðú wást, ðæt ic eom untýmende,

      Gen. 16, 2: Jn. Skt. 21, 15: Ps. Th. 68, 6.
  • Wé weotan, ðæt wé ðæs ðearfe nabbaþ,

      Bd. 2, 5; S. 507, 21.
  • Se hellsceaða wiste, ðæt hié Godes yrre habban sceoldon,

      Cd. Th, 43, 23; Gen. 695.
  • Wisse,

      Beo. Th. 4668; B. 2339.
  • Ða men wisson (wisston,

      Bt. 38, 1; Fox 196, 8), ðæt ..., Met. 26, 100.
  • Westan, Judth. Thw. 24, 26; Jud. 207, Wé witon (uutton, Lind., wntun, Rush.

    scimus

    ), ðæt hé is synful,
      Jn. Skt. 9, 24, 29, 31, Wé wuton (wutan, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 22, 16.
  • Wite gé (wutas gié, Lind., gé wutan, Rush.

    scitis

    ), ðæt ...,
      26, 2: Mk. Skt. 10, 41,
    Wit ðú, ðæt ic eom drý, Blickl. Homl. 183, 17.
  • Witaþ gé, ðæt hit swá nis

    scitote, quia non est mea,

      Bd, 4, 8; S. 576, 2.
  • Witaþ (wutas gié,

      Lind.), ðæt ..., Mt. Kmbl. 24, 43: Lk. Skt. 10, 11: Ps. Th. 99, 2.
  • Wite gé, ðæt ...

    scitote, quoniam ...,

      Ps. Th, 4, 4; Blickl. Homl. 191, 36.
  • Wite ðú, ðæt ...

    scito, quod ...,

      Gen. 15, 13: Jud. 6, 14: Blickl. Homl. 181, 11: 183, 18: Elen. Kmbl. 1889; El 946.
  • Wite hé, ðæt hé bið wana,

      Blickl. Homl. 17, 36.
  • Suá suá hié selfe wieten, ðæt hié hit for Gode dón,

      Past. 28; Swt. 191, 2.
  • Witen,

      Met. 19, 23, Se
    reccere sceal geornlíce wietan, ðætte ..., Past. 20; Swt, 149, 1.
  • Ðæm láreówe is tó wietanne, ðæt ...,

      63; Swt, 459, 6.
  • Tó witenne, Blickl. Homl, 63, 5: 129, 26: 209, 19. (bb) with

    for ðon ðe :-- Crist ðá wiste, for ðon ðe (quia )

    se hálga ðá slép,
      Blickl. Homl. 235, 13.
with indirect interrogative forms
Show examples
  • Ic wát hwæt hé þenceþ,

      Blickl. Homl. 181, 10: Cd. Th. 34, 10; Gen. 535.
  • Ic wát hwá mé ferede,

      Andr. Kmbl. 1808; An. 906.
  • Ic ne wát hwǽr ðú eart,

      Blickl. Homl. 241, 7: Exon. Th. 496, 21; Rä. 85, 18.
  • Ðú cans eal ðis wésten, and wásð hwǽr wé wician magon,

      Past, 41; Swt, 304, 16.
  • Ðú wást and canst hú ðú lifian scealt,

      Cd. Th. 56, 23; Gen. 916.
  • Wást ðú hú ðeós ádle scyle ende gesettan? Exon. Th. 163,

      16; Gú. 994.
  • Eówer Fæder wát hwæs eów þearf biþ,

      Blickl. Homl. 21, 1.
  • Wé witon hwelce wælhriównessa Neron weorhte,

      Bt. 16, 4; Fox 56, 36.
  • Ne wuti gé of hwelc tíd hláferd íwer tó cymmende sié,

      Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 24, 42,
    Gif ic wiste hú ..., Beo. Th. 5032; B. 2519.
  • Ðæt ðú wisse (wistest,

    v.l.

    ) hwæs ðú wundredest,
      Bt, 41, 4; Fox 252, 14.
  • Ne wiste hé hwonne him fǽmnan tó brýde wǽron,

      Cd. Th. 157, 5; Gen. 2600.
  • Ðæt wé wissen (wiston,

    v.l.

    ) hwæt hé wǽre,
      Bt. 42; Fox 256, 2.
  • Ðæt ic wite gearwe on hwylcne weg ic gange,

      Ps. Th. 142, 9.
  • Wite ðú hú wíd and síd helheoðo, and mid hondum ámet,

      Cd. Th. 308, 27; Sat. 699.
  • Wé witon magon hú swíþe ús is ðes dæg tó mǽrsienne,

      Blickl. Homl. 161, 7: 47, 21.
  • Gif ðú witan wille hwæt gedón wæs,

      177, 1,
with
gif
Show examples
  • Ðú wást gif hit is swá wé secgan hýrdon,

      Beo. Th. 550; B. 272.
with the construction of
and of
.
and (5b)
Show examples
  • Án þing ic wát, ðæt ic wæs blind, and ðæt ic nú geseó,

      Jn. Skt. 9, 25.
  • Wát ic ðæt nú ðá, ðæt hé bið alles leás écan dreámes,

      Cd. Th. 275, 34; Sat, 181: Andr. Kmbl. 866; An, 433.
  • Ðú wást míne geheówunga, ðæt ic eom dust,

      Blickl. Homl. 89, 15.
  • Ðæt ðú wást, ðæt ic wæs deád,

      183, 13.
  • Ða ðe hit witon, ðæt hié him þeówiaþ,

      Bt. 21; Fox 72, 32.
  • Ðæt ic gearwe wiste, ðæt ...,

      Exon. Th. 196, 7; Az. 170: Cd. Th. 24, 31; Gen. 386.
  • Ðis wutaþ gié, ðætte geneólǽcaþ ríc Godes,

      Lk. Skt. Lind. 10, 11.
  • Ǽr hé sóð wite, ðæt ða synfullan sáwla sticien helle tó middes,

      Salm. Kmbl. 342; Sal, 170.
  • Hú mæg ic hit witan, ðæt ic hit ágan sceal

    unde scire possum, quod possessurus sim eam?

      Gen. 15, 8.
with
and (5c)
Show examples
  • Ðú ðæt ána wást, hú mé módor gebær,

      Ps. C. 61.
  • Gif ðú hit wást, hú ðú mǽre eart,

      Hy. 3, 20,
    Ðæt ne wát ǽnig, hú ða wísan sind wundorlíce, Exon. Th. 223, 10; Ph. 357.
  • Ðæt ne wiste hé, hwæt se manna wæs,

      Andr. Kmbl. 521; An. 261.
  • Ðæt hié ðæt wiston, hwonne hé ðisse worlde ende gesettan wolde,

      Blickl. Homl. 119, 9.
  • Nis nǽnig mon ðe ðæt án wite, hú lange hé ðás gedón wille, hwæþer ðis þúsend sceole beón scyrtre ðe lengre,

      119, 5.
  • Ðæt ðú sóð wíte, hú ðæt geeode,

      Exon. Th. 28, 6; Cri. 442.
  • Ðæt ic sóð wite, hwæðer ...,

      Andr. Kmbl. 1206; An. 603.
  • Ne mæge wé ðæt sóð witan, hú ðú æðele eart,

      Hy. 3, 13.
with
and (5d)
Show examples
  • Gif hé synful is, ðæt ic nát,

      Jn. Skt. 9, 25,
with preposition
be
Show examples
  • Wé witon bí monnum, se se ðe bitt ðone mono ðæt him ðingie wið óðerne ðe hé bið ierre, ðæt irsigende mód hé gegremeð,

      Past. 10; Swt. 63, 11.
  • Hié wiston ge be heora sige, ge eác be ðara hǽþenra manna fleáme

    they knew both about their victory and about the heathens' flight,

      Blickl. Homl. 203, 3.
  • Se consul heora ungemet ofslóg and sige hæfde; be ðæm mon mehte witan, ðá hé and ða consulas hié átellan ne mehton

    quot millia hominum interfecta, quot capta sint, ipse consul ostendit; qui, cum multitudinem capti populi referre vellet, numerum explicare non potuit,

      Ors. 3, 10; Swt. 140, 30.
  • Be ðam æfteran is tó witanne, ðæt hé wæs tó biscope gehálgod

    de secundo intimandum, quod in episcopatum fuerit ordinatus,

      Bd, 4, 23; S. 594, 11.
to be wise, be in one's senses
Show examples
  • Dá wéndon hí ðæt hé tela ne wiste, ac ðæt hé wédde vulgus aestimabat eum insanire, Bd. 2, 13; S. 517, 10. 'Geseoh ðæt ðú teala wite.' Cwæþ hé: 'Ne wéde ic'

    vide ut sanum sapias. Non, inquit, insanio,

      5, 13; S. 632, 32.
to be conscious of, to know fear, pity, etc.,
to feel, shew respect, honour, etc.
Show examples
  • Wát ic sorga ðý má,

      Cd. Th. 54, 33; Gen. 886.
  • For hwonwást ðú weán? 54,

      12; Gen. 876.
  • Hit máre ne wát búton gnornunge,

      Met, 3, 9.
  • Se wyrsa ne wát on his mǽgwinum máran áre,

      Salm. Kmbl. 717; Sal. 358.
  • Hió him tó litelne ege tó witan

    they feel too little awe of him,

      Wulfst, 220, 27.
  • Ðú ðæs þonc ne wisses

    thou knewest (feltest) no gratitude for it,

      Exon. Th. 85, 5; Cri. 1386: 90, 15; Cri. 1474.
  • Ðone ðe in meoduhealle mine wisse (

    should feel affection

    ), oþþe mec fréfran wolde,
      288, 7; Wand. 27.
  • Ic lǽrde ðæt ǽlc on óþrum árwyrþnesse wiste,

      Blicki. Homl. 185, 13.
  • Hé him forgeaf ðone níð ðe hé tó him wiste,

      Ors. 5, 15; Swt. 250, 25.
  • Hé sár ne wiste,

      Cd. Th. 12, 3; Gen. 179.
  • Hié sorge wiht, weorces ne wiston,

      49, 2; Gen. 786.
  • Ðæt is tó wundrianne, ðæt ða Egipti swá lytle þoncunge wiston Iósepe,

      Ors. 1, 5; Swt. 34, 32.
  • Ðæt hí nǽnige incan tó him wiston

    se mentem ad ilium ab omni ira remotam habere,

      Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 41.
  • Wite máran þanc ðæs ðe ðú hæbbe, ðonne ðæs ðe ðú wéne,

      Prov. Kmbl. 22.
  • Ǽlc ðe gescád wite

    every rational person,

      L. C. S. 75; Th. i, 424, 19.
  • Ðæt hé on ðam griðe micle mǽðe wite

    that he shew great respect to that

    'grið,'
      L. Eth. vii. 31; Th. i. 336, 14.
  • Gif man on Godes griðe mǽðe witan wolde,

      Wulfst. 161, 3.
  • Ne wolde hé ǽnige áre witan on ðære Cristenan ǽfestnysse

    nec religioni Christianae aliquid inpendebat honoris,

      Bd. 2, 20; S. 521, 29.
  • Ðú mé noldest þanc witan mínra góda,

      Wulfst. 261, 10.
  • Ná heáge witende

    non alta sapientes,

      Scint. 19, 2.
Etymology
[He wald ha witen (witten, wist, v.ll.), C. M. 10793. Goth. witan; prs. wait, pl. witun; p. wissa: O. Sax. witan; prs. wét, pl. witun; p. wissa: O. Frs. wita; prs. wét, pl. witen, witath: O. H. Ger. wizzan; prs. weiz, pl. wizzun; p. wissa, wista, westa; pp. wizzan: Icel. vita; prs. veit, pl. vitu; p. vissa; pp. vitinn.]
Similar entries
v. be-, ge-witan, nytan, un-witende.
Linked entries
v.  weotan wietan.
Full form

Word-wheel

  • witan, v.