Bosworth Toller's

Anglo-Saxon

Dictionary online

hwá

  • noun [ masculineneuter ]
  • adjective
  • conjunction
  • pronoun
Dictionary links
Grammar
hwá, m, f; hwæt; n.
Wright's OE grammar
§7; §79; §144; §161; §231; §252; §263; §325; §469;
Who; what.
in direct questions [with indic. or subj.]
Show examples
  • Quis hwá is werlíc hád que hwilc is wíflíc, cujus hwæs, cui hwam a quo fram hwam ... Gif ic cweðe quis hoc fecit hwá dyde ðis ðonne biþ se

    quis interrogativum

    ðæt is áxigendlíc,
      Ælfc. Gr. 18; Som. 21, 12-27.
  • Hwá hwylc mann swá Drihten ondrǽt

    quis est homo qui timeat Dominum?

      Ps. Th. 24, 10.
  • Hwá is moncynnes ðæt ne wundrie

    what man is there that does not admire?

      Bt. Met. Fox 28, 10; Met. 28, 5.
  • Hwá þegna,

      86; Met. 28, 43.
  • Hwæt is se gewuldroda cyning

    quis est iste rex gloriæ?

      Ps. Th. 32, 10.
  • Hwæt hátte Noes wíf

    what was Noe's wife called?

      Salm. Kmbl. 184, 28.
  • Hwæt wénst ðú hwæt is ðes

    quis putas est iste?

      Mk. Skt. 4, 41; Lk. Skt. 5, 21.
  • Hwæt ys ðes mannes sunu? Jn. Skt. 12, 34.
  • Hwæt sind ðás búton þrymsetl heora Scyppendes

    what are these but thrones of their Creator?

      Homl. Th. i. 346, 11.
  • Hwæt sind ða strangan? Ða beóþ strange and trume ðe þurh geleáfan wel þeónde beóþ, ii. 390, 22.
  • Ðá cwæþ Isaac: Hwæt eart ðu? Hé andwirde: Ic eom Esau. Ðá cwæþ Isaac: Hwæt wæs se ðe mé ǽr brohte of huntoþe? Gen. 27, 32-3.
  • Hwæt is se ðe ðé slóh

    quis est qui te percussit?

      Mt. Kmbl. 26, 68.
  • Hwæt eom ic manna ðæt ic mihte god forbeódan

    what manner of man am I, that I could forbid God,

      Homl. Swt.10, 191: Elen. Kmbl. 1802; El. 903: Beo. Th. 479; B. 237.
  • Hwæt is þinga ðe bitere síe

    what thing is there that is bitterer?

      Past. 21; Swt. 164, 1.
  • Hwæt næddercynna sí on eorþan

    how many kinds of snakes are there on the earth?

      Salm. Kmbl. 204, 7.
  • Hwæt suna hæfde Adam

    what sons had Adam?

      184, 31.
  • Hwæt synt ðínum esne ealra dagena

    quot sunt dies servi tui?

      Ps. Th. 118, 84.
  • Hwæt gódes dó ic

    quid boni faciam?

      Mt. Kmbl. 19, 16.
  • Hwæt þincþ eów be Criste hwæs sunu ys hé

    quid vobis videtur de Christo? cujus est filius?

      22, 42.
  • Hunta ic eom. Hwæs?

    venator sum. Cujus?

      Coll. Monast. Th. 21, 7.
  • Hwæs wénaþ se ðe nyle gemunan

    what does he expect that will not remember?

      Exon. 25 b; Th. 74, 1; Cri. 1200.
  • Tó hwam gá wé

    ad quem ibimus?

      Jn. Skt. 6, 68.
  • Bí hwon scealt ðú lifgan

    by what art thou to live?

      Exon. 36 b; Th. 118, 23; Gú. 244.
  • For hwan nǽron eorþwelan gedǽled gelíce

    why have not earth's treasures been equally divided?

      Salm. Kmbl. 685, 693, 703; Sal. 342, 346, 351.
  • For hwan gǽst ðú swá búton wæstme ðínes gewinnes? St. And. 24, 15: Ps. Th. 73, 11: 113, 5.
  • For hwon sécest ðú sceade? Cd. 42; Th. 54,

      7, 12; Gen. 873, 876.
  • On hwam mæg man geseón mannes deáþ

    by what can one foresee a man's death?

      Salm. Kmbl. 206, 10.
  • On hwan

    in quo?

      Ps. Th. 118, 9.
  • Tó hwæm willaþ gé þider faran

    why will ye go thither?

      St. And. 6, 18.
  • Tó hwam,

      Salm. Kmbl. 894; Sal. 446.
  • Tó hwan, Soul Kmbl. 39; Seel. 17.
  • Hwæne séce gé

    quem quæritis?

      Jn. Skt. 18, 7.
  • For hwí

    quare?

      Ps. Th. 113, 5: Coll. Monast. Th. 24, 19.
  • For hwí swá

    cur sic?

    27.
  • Tó hwí stande gé ídele

    why stand ye idle,

      Homl. Th. ii. 74, 35.
  • Hwý biþ his anwald áuhte ðý mára gif hé náh his selfes geweald

    in what way will his power be at all the greater if he has not command over himself?

      Bt. Met. Fox 16, 39; Met. 16, 20.
in dependent clauses
Show examples
  • Gif ic cweþe nescio quis hoc fecit nát ic hwá ðis dyde ðon biþ se quis infinitivum ðæt is ungeendigendlíc. Gif ic cweþe tu scis quis hoc fecit ðú wást hwá ðys dyde ðon biþ se

    quis relativum

    ðæt is edlesendlíc,
      Ælfc. Gr. 18; Som. 21, 27-30.
  • Hogodon georne hwá ǽrost mihte on fǽgean men feorh gewinnan

    strove eagerly who might first obtain the life of a 'fey' man,

      Byrht. Th. 135, 26; By. 124.
  • Men ne cunnon secgan hwá ðæm hlæste onféng,

      Beo. Th. 104; B. 52: Andr. Kmbl. 761; An. 381.
  • Ic nú scortlíce secgan scyle hwá ðæs ordfruman wǽron

    I will now shortly tell who its authors were,

      Ors. 5, 9; Swt. 232, 18.
  • Næfdon hwæt hí ǽton

    nec haberent quod manducarent,

      Mk. Skt. 8, 1.
  • Ne rǽdde gé ðæt hwæt dauid dyde ðá hine hingrede

    nec hoc legistis quod fecit dauid cum esurisset,

      Lk. Skt. 6, 3.
  • Ðonne sceal gehwá him æteówian hwæt hé mid ðam punde geteolod hæfþ,

      Homl. Th. ii. 558, 10.
  • Gehiéren hwæt áwriten is,

      Past. 44; Swt. 323, 7: 45; Swt. 341, 12: 52; Swt. 405, 29.
  • Geþince gé hwæt gé síen and hwelce gé síen

    pensa quod es,

      Past. 21, 4; Swt. 159, 14: 1, 3; Swt. 27, 23.
  • Hé sǽde hyre hwæt heó man ne wæs

    he told her how she was not a man,

      Homl. Swt. 2, 78.
  • Seó eorþe is tó wundrienne hwæt heó ǽrest oððe gódra þinga cenne

    mirandum est terra quantum aut bonarum rerum pariat,

      Nar. 2, 12.
  • Mé wæs uncúþ hwæt ðæs ðám lícian wolde ðe æfter ús wǽren

    I did not know how much of it would please those that should be after us,

      L. Alf. 49; Th. i. 58, 22.
  • Hit næs ná gesǽd hwæt Pirruses folces gefeallen wǽre,

      Ors. 4, 1; Bos. 77, 30.
  • [Ðæt is ungeliéfedlíc tó gesecganne] hwæt ðæs ealles wæs

    what there was of it all,

      5, 12; Swt. 240, 16: Chr. 1046; Erl. 171, 3.
  • Hé nyste hwæt ðæs sóðes wæs

    he did not know how much truth there was in it,

      Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 17, 33.
  • Hý ne áhsedan hwæt ðæra gefarenra wǽre, ac hwæt heora ðonne tó láfe wǽre

    they did not ask how many were dead, but how many of them were then left,

      4, 4; Bos. 80, 12.
  • Ðá befran se sceaða hwæt hé manna wǽre. Homl. Th. ii. 502, 27: Cd. 64; Th. 77,

      6; Gen. 1271.
  • Saga hwæt ic hátte say what I am called, Exon. 102 b; Th. 387, 1; Rä. 4, 72, Ðæt hie geþencen hwæs folgeras hie sindon

    ut cujus sint sequaces agnoscant,

      Past. 47, 1; Swt. 357, 16.
  • Wé cwǽdon hwæs se wyrðe wǽre ðe óðrum ryhtes wyrnde,

      L. Ed. 2; Th. i. 160, 10.
  • Ic cýðe hwæs ic gean intó ealdan mynstre,

      Chart. Th. 333, 10: Andr. Kmbl. 290; An. 145.
  • Swá wæs gemearcod hwam ðæt sweord geworht ǽrest wǽre

    so was marked for whom that sword was first wrought,

      Beo. Th. 3397; B. 1696.
  • Ic ne can for hwam se streám ne mót stillan nihtes

    I know not why the stream cannot rest at night,

      Salm. Kmbl. 795; Sal. 397.
  • Lyt ðú gemundest tó hwan ðínre sáwle þing siððan wurde

    little didst thou mind to what thy soul's condition would come,

    Soul
      Kmbl. 39; Seel. 20: Beo. Th. 4149; B. 2071.
  • Sió hálige gesomnung þurh gesceádwísnesse gesiehþ of huan ǽlc costung cymeþ

    sancta ecclesia, quæ ex causis singulis tentamenta prodeant, per discretionem conspicit,

      Past. 11, 2; Swt. 65, 24.
  • Ac ðú findst wið hwone ðú meaht flítan

    sed contra quos valeatis vos extendere, semper invenitis,

      44, 8; Swt. 331, 5.
  • Be hwý

    according to what principle,

      Chart. Th. 171, 7.
  • Ic wundrige for hwý se góda God lǽte ǽnig yfel beón

    I wonder for what reason the good God allows any evil to exist,

      Bt. 36, 1; Fox 172, 4.
  • For hwig,

      St. And. 32, 13.
  • Frægn hí mid hwí hí gescildan heora hús

    he asked them what they protected their house with,

      Shrn. 90, 7.
[an indefinite pronoun]
any one, some one; anything, something
Show examples
  • Gif hwá on cirican hwæt þeófige

    if any one steal anything in a church,

      L. Alf. pol. 6; Th. i. 66, 2.
  • Gyf hwá eów ǽnig þingc tócwyþ

    si quis vobis aliquid dixerit,

      Mt. Kmbl. 21, 3.
  • Nellaþ hí gelýfan ðeáh hwá of deáþe árise

    they will not believe, though one rose from death,

      Homl. Th. i. 334, 21: Bt. Met. Fox 10, 53; Met. 10, 27.
  • Ðeáh ánra hwá ealles wealde ðæs íglandes

    though any one rule all that island,

      16, 31; Met. 16, 16.
  • Hwæt hwá óðrum tó wó gedó

    what any one does wrongfully to another,

      L. E. I. 35; Th. ii. 432, 26.
  • Búton hwá þurh flánes flyht fyl genáme,

      Byrht. Th. 133, 56; By. 71.
  • Gif hé næbbe hwæt hé selle

    if he have not anything to give,

      L. Alf. 24; Th. i. 50, 16.
  • Ne furþum ne giémaþ hwæt hie dón oððe hwonne hie hwæt dón

    qui nequaquam, quæ quando agant, inspiciunt,

      Past. 39, 3; Swt. 287, 7.
  • Ánes hwæt tó singanne

    to sing something,

      46, 2; Swt. 347, 6: Beo. Th. 6013; B. 3010.
  • Tó ðæm gleáw ðæt hé swelces hwæt tócnáwan cunne

    so skilled that he can distinguish in a matter of such a kind,

      Past. 52, 10; Swt. 411, 26.
  • Blæc oððe won oððe swilces hwæt

    pale or livid or something of that kind,

      L. M. 1, 35; Lchdm. ii. 82, 13: Beo. Th. 1764: B. 880.
  • Gif hwæt yfles on biþ,

      L. M. 2, 24; Lchdm. ii. 214, 13.
  • Lytles hwæt,

      Ors. 3, 7; Swt. 120, 4: 3, 9; Swt. 136, 18.
  • Gif friþgeard sí on hwæs lande

    if a 'friþgeard' be on any one's land,

      L. N. P. L. 54; Th. ii. 298, 16.
  • Gif hwæs bróðor deád biþ

    si cujus frater mortuus fuerit,

      Mk. Skt. 12, 19.
  • Ðonne ðæt mód hwæs wilnode tó witanne ðæs ðe hit ǽr for sweotole ongytan ne meahte,

      Shr. 164, 19.
  • Ðeáh hwæm swá ne þince

    though to any one it seem not so,

      Bt. 20; Fox 70, 32.
  • Rinca hwæm,

      Bt. Met. Fox 22, 56; Met. 22, 28.
  • Oft hwæm gebyreþ ðæt hé hwæt mǽrlíces and wundorlíces gedéþ,

      Past. 4, 1; Swt. 39, 6: 40, 5; Swt. 297, 4.
  • Hit biþ on ánes hwæm ðé unfæstre

    impar quisque invenitur ad singula,

      4, 1; Swt. 37, 15.
  • Sóna swá sacerda hwylc hwone on wóh gesyhþ

    directly any priest sees any one in error,

      L. E. I. 28; Th. ii. 424, 26.
  • Ðeáh mon hwone gódra mid rihte herige,

      Bt. 30, 1; Fox 108, 8: Bt. Met. Fox 10, 1; Met. 10, 1: Beo. Th. 312; B. 155.
in combination with swá,
whosoever, whatsoever, whatever
Show examples
  • Swá hwá quicunque, Ælfc. Gr. 18; Som. 21, 37: swá hwá

    quisquis,

    34.
  • Swá hwá swá ðé genýt þúsend stapa

    quicunque te; angariaberit mille passus,

      Mt. Kmbl. 5, 41: Cd. 22; Th. 28, 20; Gen. 438: 24; Th. 31, 10; Gen. 483.
  • Swá hwæt swá hig woldon

    quæcumque voluerunt, Mt. Kmbl. 17, 12: Cd. 35; Th. 47, 4; Gen. 755. [Hí mósten césen of clerchádes man swá hwam (acc. )

    swá hí wolden,
      Chr. 1123; Erl. 250, 11.
taking the place of the earlier se
Show examples
  • Hé wið ðone cyng geworhte for hwan hine se cyng ealles benǽmde

    he acted against the king; on which account the king deprived him of everything,

      1104; Erl. 239, 31: 1110; Erl. 243, 15: 1117; Erl. 246, 21.
    ]
Etymology
[Laym. wha; whæt, what, wat: Orm. wha; whatt: A. R. hwo; hwat: O. and N. hwo, wo; hwat, what, wat: R. Glouc. wo; wat: Ayenb. huo; huet: Chauc. Piers P. who; what: Goth. hwas, m: hwó; f: hwa; n: O. Sax. hwe; hwat: O. Frs. hwa; hwet: Icel. hvar; hvat: O. H. Ger. hwer; hwaz: Ger. wer; was: Lat. quis; quid.]
Similar entries
v. hwæt, hwý; ge-whá.
Linked entries
v.  chuæt for-hwám hu- hwæt HWÝ.
Full form

Word-wheel

  • hwá, n.; adj.; con.; pronoun.